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Incoterms Essay

2213 words - 9 pages

Arturo Lemmen Meyer
Comercio exterior

Los Incoterms son un conjunto de reglas internacionales, regidos por la Cámara de Comercio Internacional, que determinan el alcance de las cláusulas comerciales incluidas en el contrato de compraventa internacional.

Los Incoterms también se denominan cláusulas de precio, pues cada termino permite determinar los elementos que lo componen. La selección del Incoterm influye sobre el costo del contrato.

El propósito de los Incoterms es el de proveer un grupo de reglas internacionales para la interpretación de los términos mas usados en el Comercio internacional.
Los Incoterms determinan:
* El alcance del precio.
* En que ...view middle of the document...

* Pago de la Mercadería
* Gastos de importación (maniobras, almacenaje, agentes)
* Aduana (documentos, permisos, requisitos, impuestos)
* Flete y seguro (lugar de importación a planta)
* Demoras

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) - Costo, Seguro y Flete (puerto de destino convenido)
Significa que el vendedor entrega la mercadería cuando esta sobrepasa la borda del buque en el puerto de embarque convenido.

El vendedor debe pagar los costos y el flete necesarios para conducir las mercaderías al puerto de destino convenido.

En condiciones CIF el vendedor debe también contratar un seguro y pagar la prima correspondiente, a fin de cubrir los riesgos de pérdida o daño que pueda sufrir la mercadería durante el transporte.

El comprador ha de observar que el vendedor está obligado a conseguir un seguro sólo con cobertura mínima. Si el comprador desea mayor cobertura necesitará acordarlo expresamente con el vendedor o bien concertar su propio seguro adicional.

El término CIF exige al vendedor despachar las mercaderías para la exportación.

Este término puede ser utilizado sólo para el transporte por mar o por vías navegables interiores.

Obligaciones del Vendedor.
* Entregar la mercadería y documentos necesarios
* empaque y embalaje
* Flete (de fábrica al lugar de exportación)
* Aduana (documentos, permisos, requisitos, impuestos)
* Gastos de exportación (maniobras, almacenaje, agentes )
* Flete y seguro (de lugar de exportación al lugar de importación)
Obligaciones del Comprador.
* Pago de la mercadería
* Gastos de importación (maniobras, almacenaje, agentes )
* Aduana (documentos, permisos, requisitos, impuestos)
* Flete y seguro (lugar de importación a planta)
* Demoras

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid to) - Transporte y Seguro Pago Hasta (lugar de destino convenido)
El vendedor entrega las mercaderías al transportista designado por él pero, además, debe pagar los costos del transporte necesario para llevar las mercaderías al destino convenido. El vendedor también debe conseguir un seguro contra el riesgo, que soporta el comprador, de pérdida o daño de las mercaderías durante el transporte.

El comprador asume todos los riesgos y con cualquier otro coste ocurridos después de que las mercaderías hayan sido así entregadas.

El CPT exige que el vendedor despache las mercaderías para la exportación.

Este término puede emplearse con independencia del modo de transporte, incluyendo el transporte multimodal.

Obligaciones del Vendedor
* Entregar la mercadería y los documentos necesarios
* Empaque y embalaje
* Flete (de fábrica al lugar de exportación)
* Aduana (documentos, permisos, requisitos, impuestos)
* Gastos de exportación (maniobras, almacenaje, agentes )
* Flete y seguro (de lugar de exportación al lugar de importación)
* Gastos de importación (maniobras, almacenaje,...

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