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In Depth Explanation Of The Haber Process

2774 words - 12 pages

GlossaryItemCategoryDefinitionActivation EnergyReaction rateThe minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to occur.CatalystReaction rateA substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction.Collision TheoryReaction rateDescribes the rate of a chemical reaction through different types of collisions of particles.DissociationThe decomposition or break down of complex molecules into simpler atoms or particles.EquilibriumEquilibriumEstablished when both forward and reverse reactions have equal reaction rates.Equilibrium constantEquilibriumThe ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations.ExothermicReactionsA reaction where reactants release ...view middle of the document...

However at low temperatures the reaction cannot take place due to the required temperatures of at least 3000°c for the dissociation of nitrogen and hydrogen gas. Though an iron catalyst is used to reduce the activation energy and hence reduce the amount of heat required for the dissociation process to 250-400°c.Explanation of chemistry involvedAccording to the equation of ammonia synthesis is an equilibrium reaction indicated by the symbol "⇌" and is also distinguished by the evident forward reaction (ammonia synthesis) and reverse reaction (ammonia decomposition).Increasing the yield of ammonia produced.The aim of the Haber process is to produce ammonia and there are numerous methods to increase the yield of ammonia production. Methods include aspects of pressure, temperature, volume, concentration and catalysts deriving from various principles and rules from Le Chatelier's principle and the collision theory.The reaction of ammonia synthesis can be described as, and contains valuable information on the characteristics of ammonia synthesis.To be able to improve the yield of ammonia produced, one must be able to distinguish and identify significant data from the reaction equation.By observing the reaction equation, it is obvious that the:•Number of moles on the right hand side, with a total of 2 moles, is greater than the left hand side, of total 1 mol.•Reactants and products are in a gaseous state.•Reaction is exothermic and is determined by identifying the value q representing heat. In the process of ammonia synthesis, heat is released and is represented by the q value on the products side. Placing the q value on the products side indicates that heat is being released which describes an exothermic reaction. By placing the q value on the reactants side, it indicates that heat is being absorbed and will therefore be an endothermic reaction.• Reaction is a reversible reaction.By applying the known data, extracted from the reaction equation, with aspects of Le Chatelier's principle and the Collision Theories it is able to find solutions to increase the yield of ammonia produced, making the reaction more advantageous.Le Chatelier's principle determines the position of equilibrium of a reaction [1]. The position of equilibrium can only be to the left or right indicating which side produces a greater yield at equilibrium. If the position of equilibrium is to the left then, at equilibrium, than the reverse reaction produces more yield than the forward reaction. The same concept applies if the position of equilibrium lies to the right, though it indicates that the forward reaction produces more yield than the reverse. In relation to the synthesis of ammonia, the position of equilibrium requires to be to the right to produce the most possible yield of ammonia.PressureAn aspect of Le Chatelier's principle is pressure, and by increasing the pressure of the reaction, the position of equilibrium will go towards the side with...

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