Disenchantment of France, Italy, Bolshevik Russia and the defeated powers; implications of the USA’s failure to ratify the settlement
French aims for Paris Peace Conference
* France naturally wished to limit the Germany military as much as possible so future attacks would be impossible. France was angry at the unprovoked Schlieffen Plan which had led to death of over 1.3 million French soldiers aswell as had caused destruction of most of northern France. Losses and damages were tremendous and as a result France wanted to guarantee that Germany could never attack again.
* Beside this France demanded the return of provinces Alsace and Lorraine. These had been annexed by Germany ...view middle of the document...
Italian aims for Paris Peace Conference
* Though Italy had been a part of Triple Alliance before the World War I, it soon joined the Central Powers as World War I broke out.
* Italy's main concerns for the Paris Peace Conference were territorial in nature. The Treaty of London promised Italy large section of Austro-Hungarian land, mostly where Italian population was in majority. The territories promised were the province of Tyrol up to the Brenner Pass, the port of Trieste and the Istrian peninsula.
* Italy also hoped for colonies in former Ottoman territory and Aegean islands.
* Italy was also to be the protector of Albania.
Italian dissatisfaction with Paris Peace Conference
* Orlando, Italian Prime Ministers regarded the Treaty of London as a solemn and binding agreement, and expected its terms to be carried out and Italy to be rewarded for its participation alongside the victorious Allies.
* The leaders of Britain and France, for their part, deeply regretted making such promises; they viewed Italy with annoyance, feeling the Italians had botched their attacks on Austria-Hungary during the war, failed to honour their naval promises and repeatedly asked for resources which they then failed to put towards the war effort.
* Negotiations over Italy's demands, planned to last six days, opened on April 19, 1919, in Paris. Tensions flared immediately, as Orlando held firm in the face of fierce resistance from the other leaders, warning of civil war in Italy—driven by an increasingly radical movement of right-wing nationalists—if the country did not receive what it had been promised.
* Wilson published a statement arguing that the Treaty of London must be set aside and reminding Italy that it should be satisfied with receiving the territory of the Trentino and the Tyrol, where the majority of the population was Italian.
* In the final Treaty of Versailles, signed in June, Italy received a permanent seat on the League of Nations, the Tyrol and a share of the German reparations. Many Italians were bitterly disappointed with their post-war lot, however, and conflict continued over Fiume, a port city in Croatia in which Italians made up the largest single...