Development of Corrections
CJS 230 – Gerry Norris
November 27, 2011
University of Phoenix Online – Axia College
There was a perplexing problem in the early 1800’s because the rate of women incarcerated was much lower than the rates of women incarcerated today. In reality women’s prisons did not exist, therefore the jails often treated women the same as they did the men, as well the women were punished the same way the men were “with the exception that pregnant women were often spared punishment until after they had given birth” (Foster, 2006, pg. 32). Most women incarcerated were because of prostitution and stealing. Foster also states that women incarcerated were generally mixed with the makes and they were supervised by males. (Foster 2006, pg. 32). According to Foster this began to change when Elizabeth Gurney ...view middle of the document...
In that era children who committed crimes were treated like the adults who committed crimes. As time passed, it was seen that children could not reason like adults do, therefore the children could not be held to the same standards. As time passed, laws were designated in order to protect the innocence of the youth, and by 1787 Massachusetts had developed a code that acknowledged the special needs of children. (CJi Interactive, 2011).
If there were no distinction between juvenile and adult prisons, there are many issues that would arise. There were three basic arguments that the reformers had when it came to juveniles being incarcerated with adults; these three arguments were: 1. The penitentiary regimen was too hard on tender youth, 2. Juveniles would learn bad habits from older criminals and be embittered by the experience of confinement, 3. Adolescents could be reformed if they were diverted early enough into institutions designed specifically for people their age. (Foster, 2006, pg. 34).
All inmates, men and women, did work six days a week in prison factories, or the necessary functions of the prison to keep it running day to day. The purpose of inmate labor was because the goods that were produced were sold in order to pay for their own upkeep. The decline of prison war was caused by a couple of factors first of all private businesses strongly opposed prison-made goods being sold on the open market; it was bad for their business. In addition, after the Civil War, labor unions argued that prisoners took jobs away from free people who were more deserving of employment. Finally, prison reformers deplored the way prisoners were worked, particularly under leasing in the South, where prisoners were under clothed, underfed, and overworked, often to death. (Foster, 2006, pg.46)
CJi Interactive. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System.
Foster, B. (2006). Corrections: The fundamentals.