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Ielts Reading Essay

2054 words - 9 pages

十四种雅思阅读题型做题技巧
一、Matching(从属关系搭配题)
1. 题型要求Matching(搭配题)
是IELTS最常考的题型之一,每次考试至少有一组,很多时候达到两组甚至更多,应该引起同学们的重视。搭配题通常有三部分组成:题目要求、选相的集合、题目的集合。要求你根据某种关系将题目与选项配对。这种关系在题目要求中说明。搭配题通常不具有顺序性,也就是说,题目的顺序和原文的顺序是不一致的。所以做搭配题,通读一遍原文一般是不可避免的。大多数同学会感觉这种题型不太难,但比较烦。如果有足够的时间,肯定都能做出来。这种题型就是考大家的快速阅读能力,即很快从文章中找到所需信息的能力。大家在做搭配题的练习时,不仅要保证准确率,还要注意时间。一般每个题目1-2分钟。例如一组6个题目的搭配题,应在8-10分钟做完。搭配题本身有分为三种类型:从属关系搭配题、因果关系搭配题、作者及其观点搭配题。
不同类型的搭配题有不同的解题方法,所以我分为三种题型分别介绍,希望这样会更清楚。本节主要介绍从属关系搭配题。从属关系搭配题是搭配题中最常靠的类型。选项中的元素和题目中的元素是从属的关系,要求根据原文,将每个题目与相应的选项搭配。
请看下面中文阅读例子: 原文:介绍中国四个直辖市的情况。(略) 题目要求:将直辖市的特征与相应的城市搭配。
选项:A 北京市 B 上海市 C 天津市 D 重庆市题目:
1 狗不里包子 2 黄浦大桥 3 天安门 4 十八街麻花
答案:1C 2 B 3A 4C 考试中,A类和G类一般都是每次必考,考两组,共十题左右。有时也考一或三组。
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(注意,对一些问题你需要选多个选项)。如果题目没有类似上述要求,应该是每个题目只能选一个选项。
2. 有些选项可能会用两次以上。 绝大多数的搭配题,有些选项可能用两次以上。如前面举的中文阅读的例子,第1题和第4题的答案都是选项C:天津。在搭配题中,这是普遍存在的现象。
3. 有的选项可能用不上。 并不是所有的选项都会用上。如前面举的中文阅读的例子,虽然文章中也说了重庆的一些特点,但没有出搭配题,所以选项D没有被用上。在搭配题中,这也是普遍存在的现象。不要因为这个怀疑自己的答案。
4. 第一题的答案往往在文章的后部,最后一题的答案往往在文章的前部。 从属关系的搭配题是没有顺序性的。而且,出题者为了颠倒黑白,混淆是非,给考生造成障碍,往往将一个在文章的后部信息作为搭配题的第一题,在文章的前部的一个内容作为最后一题。这个规律的准确率在80%以上。我们可以利用这个规律,在找第一题的答案时,重点看文章的后部。在找最后一题的答案时,重点看文章的前部。
5. 注意题目的答案要求 要注意题目要求你在答题纸上写什么。
如题目要求为: Write the letters for the appropriate company in boxes9-14 on your answer sheet.
SC if it is Scaled Composites
R if it is Renault
GM if it is General Motors
F if it is Fiat
B if it is Boeing
那么,你在答题纸上写的答案只能是SC、R、GM、F、B中的一个。如果写成Scaled Conposites就错了。
总结:
先看题目记住关键词
多数情况下每个题目只能选一个选项
有些选项可能用两次以上,有的选项用不上。
第一题的答案通常在文章后部,最后一题的答案通常在文章前部
题目让回答字母缩写就可以的时候千万不能写全称
题目的顺序和原文是不一样的

二、Matching(因果关系搭配)
1.题型要求
同从属关系搭配题一样,因果关系搭配题也有一个选项的集合一个题目的集合。题目是一些(effects)或问题(problems),选项是原因(causes)。所以这种题目实际上是找原因。与从属关系搭配题不同,这种题型有顺序性,即题目的顺序与原文的顺序基本一致。而且题目在原文中的出处常常集中于几个连续的段落。所以,一般这种题型比从属关系搭配题要容易一些。考试中,A类和G类都不是每次必考。
2.解题步骤
(1)不用先把题目从头到尾看一遍,而应该一道题一道题地做。既然有顺序性,就没有必要先把题目从头到尾看一遍,而是先从第一段做起,先找第一题的答案。找到后,再找第二题的答案,第二题的答案肯定在第一题的答案之后。
(2)先找出题目中的关键词,再到原文中去找它的对应词。在做每题时,先找出题目中的关键词,然后快速阅读原文,寻找该关键词的对应词。
(3)仔细阅读关键词所在的句子,确定正确答案。正确答案常常是原文词句的改写。因为是因果关系搭配,在确定答案时,要对表示因果关系的词特别敏感,搞清句子中描述的因果关系。
NOTICE
1.做题时,要特别注意原文中表示因果关系的词。我们把考试中经常出现的表示因果关系的词给大家总结一下: A.连词:BECAUSE,SINCE,AS,FOR,THEREFORE,SO,THUS,WHY;
A.动词:RESULT IN,RESULT FROM, FOLLOW FROM,BASE…ON…,BE DUE TO;
A.名词:BASIS,RESULT,CONSE1UENCE,REASON;
A.介词:BECAUSE OF,THANKS TO;
A.副词:AS A RESULT,CONSEQUENTLY
在阅读原文寻找答案时,要特别注意上述表示因果关系的词。同时,掌握这些词,对大家写作也有好处。

2. 要注意一因多果在因果关系搭配题中,有的选项也可能会用两次以上,即有两个结果是同一个原因,我们称之为一因多果。原文中的表述常常是这样的:原因A,结果1。结果2。在两个结果之间没有说出新的原因,这说明结果1和结果2的原因是一样的,都是结果A。
总结:
根据问题找原因,有顺序性,一般出在原文的连续几个段落。
不用把题目从头到尾看一遍,应该一道一道的做,先找关键词
注意表示因果关系的词,注意一因多果
有的选项可能用两次以上

三、MATCHING(作者及其观点搭配题)
1.题型要求
在原文中,就一个主题,若干人或组织提出了若干个观点,题目要求将观点与其提出者(作者)搭配。这种搭配题也有一个选项的集合和一个题目的集合。题目是观点,选项是作者。这种题型一般比较难,主要表示现在:
(1)没有顺序性,即题目的顺序与原文的顺序是不一致的。
(2)文章题材多样,有的比较偏。作者提出的观点一般比较抽象,不好理解。(3)文章句式复杂。一般句子都比较长,有很多都是复合句、并列复合句、多重复合句,造成大家理解上的困难。
(4)题目中的观点与原文中的对应观点在句子形式上变化较大,造成对应困难。与从属关系搭配题一样,作者及观点搭配题也没有顺序性。但不能用同样的解题方法。怎么做从属关系搭配题呢?前面介绍的方法是:在阅读文章前,先将题目从头到尾看一遍,记住尽可能多的关键词。但不能用这种方法作者及其观点搭配题。主要是因为题目都是一些观点,意思抽象,句式复杂。先将题目从头到尾看一遍,不仅会花很多时间,而且很可能读完题目之后,没有什么印象,也抓不住什么关键词。那么应该怎么做呢?请看下面的解题步骤。考试中,A类一般考得比较多,考一组,共五题左右。G类一般考得比较少。
2. 解题步骤
(1)在原文中将作者及其观点用线划出。作者都包含大写字母,有的还有年代,表明是什么时候提出来的观点,所以一般都比较好找。他的观点在他的名字之前或者之后。表述观点一般有两种方法:
A. 观点在作者的名字之前;例如: IN TERMS OF TIME, WOMEN PERFORM APPROXIMATELY 90 PER CENT OF CHILD CARE TASKS AND 70 PER CENT OF ALL FAMILY WORK,AND ONLY 14 PER CENT OF FATHERS ARE HIGHLY PARTICIPANT IN TERMS OF TIME SPENT ON FAMILY WORK(RUSSELL 1983)

A. 观点在作者的名字之后;例如: DEMO AND ACOCK(1993),IN A RECENT US STUDY, ALSO FOUND THAT WOMEN CONTIMUE TO PERFORM A CONSTANT AND MAJOR PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD LABOUR(68 PER CENT TO 95 PER CENT)ACROSS ALL FAMILY TYPES(FIRST MARRIAGE,DIVORCED,STEP-FAMILY OR...

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