IDEALISM IN EDUCATION
01. INTRODUCTION Idealism is the oldest theory of philosophy. Its origin goes back to ancient India in the East and to Plato in the West. Generally, Idealists believe that ideas are the true reality. According to them, the human spirit is the most important element in life. Matter is not real. It attaches great significance to the study of man and his mind. It maintains that the material and physical universe is subordinate to a higher type of reality, a spiritual universe. CHIEF EXPONENTS OF IDEALISM (I) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) The Videc Rishis of India Plato – (427-347 B.C) Kant (1724- 1804 A.D) Hegal (1770-1831 A.D) Froebel (1772 – 1852 A.D) Swami ...view middle of the document...
Material world is the expression of spiritual world. This world is not real. Man is the best creation of God. That is spiritual power in him. God is source of all knowledge. Value are absolute and unchanging Man is not the creator of values. The source of attaining true knowledge is our wisdom or intellectual enlightenment. The Philosophy believes in unity in diversity.
(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)
05. PRINCIPLES OF IDEALISM The fundamental principles of Idealism are as under: (i) Two forms of the Whole World: Idealism believes in two forms of the
world: (1) Spiritual world and (2) Material world, Idealists give more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth whereas the material world is transitory and mortal. To know the reality of the spiritual world is to know the reality of mind and soul. It is a sort of self - realization - the main aim of human life. (ii) Ideas are more important than objects: Knowledge of mind and soul
can be obtained through ideas only according to Idealist. Therefore, they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material things. To them, ideas are the ultimate Reality whereas objects die out sooner or later. In the Ideas are
embedded all the realities and ultimate entities of the material world.
(iii) Importance of Man over Nature: Man is more important than material nature as per the philosophy of idealist, it is because man can think and experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are, but he moulds and transforms the environment for his own good and welfare of the society. In a nutshell, man creates his own world of virtue and higher levels of art in different areas are achieved through his creativity. (iv) Faith in Spiritual Values: Idealists stress the point that the Prime aim
of life is to achieve spiritual values. They are - Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these values man rises higher and higher in the moral plane till he attains Divinity. For the
Achievement of these spiritual values all the capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are - knowing, feelings and willing. Man can achieve the highest spiritual values and thus realize his true and ultimate self. by the complete use of these capacities. (v) Importance of Personality Development: The „self ‟of the individual is given much importance by the idealists. Therefore they insist upon the fullest
development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality means achievement of „Perfection‟. Plato rightly speaks that each individual has an ideal...