Bullecer, Leur Anne Fay January 29, 2014
Calangi, Kirsten Iola
Bautista, Luis Fernando
Ipinasa kay: G.Aaron A.Tolentino, Guro Proyekto
Background of the Theory
The idea of modernization is relatively new. Its basic principles can be derived from the Idea of Progress, which emerged in the 18th-century, Age of Enlightenment, with the idea that people themselves could develop and change their society. French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of the theory with the concept that technological advancements and economic changes can enable changes in moral and cultural values. Condorcet was the first to make ...view middle of the document...
Durkheim furthermore developed the idea of social evolution, which indicates how societies and cultures develop over time—much like a living organism—essentially saying that social evolution is like biological evolution with reference to the development of its components. Like organisms, societies progress through several stages generally starting at a simplistic level and then developing into a more complex level. Societies adapt to surrounding environments—but also interact with other societies, which further contributes to progress and development. Modern sociology evolved in part as a reaction to the problems associated with modernity, such as industrialization and the process of 'rationalization'.
Modernisation theory emerged further in the late 19th century and was especially popular among scholars in the mid-20th century. One foremost advocate was Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons Mandarins of the Future (2003) The theory stressed the importance of societies being open to change and saw reactionary forces as restricting development. Maintaining tradition for tradition's sake was thought to be harmful to progress and development. Proponents of modernization lie in two camps, optimists and pessimist. The former view holds that what a modernizer sees as a setback to the theory (events such as the Iranian Revolution or the troubles in Lebanon) are invariably temporary setbacks with the ability to attain "modernism" still existing. Pessimists argue that such non-modern areas are incapable of becoming modern.
Description of the Proponent/s
Main Assumption on Development
Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the 1950s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present pre-modern societies become modern or westernized through processes of economic growth and change in social, political, and cultural structures. In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product. Mechanization or industrialization are ingredients in the process of economic growth. It should be noted at the outset that the sociological concept of modernization does not refer simply to becoming current or ‘‘up to date’’ but rather specifies particular contents and processes of societal changes in the course of national development. Also, modernization theories of development do not necessarily bear any relationship to more recent philosophical concepts of ‘‘modernity’’ and ‘‘post modernity.’’ Modernity in philosophical and epistemological discussions refers to the perspective that there is one true descriptive and explanatory model that reflects the actual world. Post modernity is the stance that no single true description and explanation of reality exists but rather that knowledge, ideology, and science itself are based on subjective understandings of an entirely...