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Hypertensive Emergency Essay

2384 words - 10 pages

Hypertensive emergency
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension (high blood pressure) with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. In case of a hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure should be substantially lowered over minutes to hours with an antihypertensive agent.
Contents [hide] * 1 Treatment * 2 Incidence * 3 Definition * 3.1 Hypertensive emergency as a generic term * 4 Pathophysiology * 5 Mortality * 6 Clinical history * 7 References ...view middle of the document...

Individuals with a history of chronichypertension may not tolerate a "normal" blood pressure.
Hypertensive crisis affects upward of 500,000 Americans each year. Although the incidence of hypertensive crisis is low, affecting fewer than 1% of hypertensive adults, more than 50 million adult Americans suffer from hypertension.[2]
According to a research published in 2006, hypertension prevalence is again on the rise with 28.6% of the U.S. population suffering it in 1999-2002. According to the study, incidence rates of hypertension range between 3% and 18%. These numbers depend on the age, gender, ethnicity, and body size. [3]
According to Whelton, the incidence and prevalence of hypertension is about 50% higher in African-American adults than in white or Mexican-American populations. Also, Whelton adds that prevalence of hypertension has increased progressively in children and adolescents between 1988-2000. According to the study recent estimates indicate that approximately 1 billion adults have hypertension. The highest prevalence of hypertension is in Eastern Europe and the Latin American/Caribbean region. [4]
As a result of the use of antihypertensives, the incidence of hypertensive emergencies has declined from 7% to 1% of patients with hypertension. The 1 – year survival rate has also increased. Before 1950, this survival rate was only 20%, and it is now more than 90% with the proper medical treatment. Hypertensive crises affect less than 1% of hypertensive adults in the United States. [5]
Hypertensive crises more commonly occur among African-Americans and the elderly. Most patients who experience hypertensive crises have previously been diagnosed as hypertensive. Many of such patients have been prescribed antihypertensive therapy , but have inadequate blood pressure control. [6]
Estimates indicate that approximately 1% to 2% of patients with hypertension develop hypertensive crisis at some point in their lifetime. Men are usually more affected by hypertensive crises thanwomen.
The incidence of hypertensive crises has increased and hospital admissions tripled between 1983 and 1990, from 23,000 to 73,000 per year in the United States. The incidence of postoperative hypertensive crisis varies and such variation depends on the population examined. Most studies report and incidence of between 4% to 35%. [7]
Terminology[8] | Systolic Pressure (mm Hg) | Diastolic Pressure (mm Hg) | Text |
Normal | < 120 | < 80 | |
Pre-hypertension | 120-139 | 80-89 | |
Hypertension Stage 1 | 140-159 | 90-99 | |
Hypertension Stage 2 | ≥ 160 | ≥ 100 | |
Hypertensive Crisis | ≥ 180 | ≥ 120 | |
Hypertensive Emergency | ≥ 180 | ≥ 120 | With signs of acute organ damage. |
The term hypertensive emergency is primarily used as a specific term for a hypertensive crisis with a diastolic blood pressure greater...

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