Hypertension and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, otherwise known as RAAS is a complex hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance in the human body. When blood volume is low, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys activate prorenin, which secretes renin directly into the blood stream circulation. Subsequently, a drop in blood volume additionally releases angiotensinogen from liver, in which renin converts into angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II through the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) found in the lung. Angiotensin II is a potent biological ...view middle of the document...
These drugs are the main ways to control hypertension, heart failure, kidney failure, and harmful effects of diabetes.
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, or renal complications due to diabetes. Common prescribe ACE inhibitors include perindopril, captopril, enalapril, Lisinopril, and ramipril. This group of drugs causes dilatation of blood vessels, which results in lower blood pressure. Additionally, ACE inhibitors stops the formation of angiotensin II by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme, thereby, decreasing the tension in the blood vessels and lowering the blood volume, thus lowering blood pressure. Despite the effects of ACE inhibitors, often times, these drugs are coupled with other drugs such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers in combating hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists is a pharmaceutical drug similar in the function of ACE inhibitors in treating hypertension, congestive heart failure, or renal complications due to diabetes. Common drugs that prescribe ARBs are valsartan, telmisartan, losartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, eprosartan, and candesartan. ARBs functions by blocking the receptor sites for angiotensin II, thus nullifying the bio-active compound’s effects. In all, one of the rational for using ARBs as oppose to ACE inhibitors is the avoidance of dry cough commonly found as a side effect of ACE inhibitors.
Renin inhibitors are a group of pharmaceutical drugs mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. Essentially, renin inhibitors blocks renin’s ability of converting angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, subsequently inhibiting angiotensin II activity, thus regulating the RAAS from increasing blood pressure and fluid reuptake.
Loop diuretics are a group of pharmaceutical diuretic drugs used in primarily in the treatment of hypertension and edema due to congestive heart failure or renal insufficiency. Common drugs prescribed are furosemide, bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and torsemide. These group of diuretic drugs act at the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney, primarily in the thick ascending limb of the...