to Europe for sexual exploitation
Trafï¬cking in Persons
Chapter extracted from â€œThe Globalization of Crime â€” A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessmentâ€ Report. This report has not been formally edited. The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNODC or contributory organizations and neither do they imply any endorsement. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNODC concerning the legal status of any country, territory or city or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries. Cover poto: A. Scotti ...view middle of the document...
It is difficult to say to what extent this is indicative of a greater problem or whether it is simply a matter of greater vigilance. In recent years, the majority of human trafficking victims detected in Europe have come from the Balkans and the former Soviet Union, in particular Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. Victims from at least some of these five countries have also been located in all parts of Europe. But the dominance of these groups appears to be changing as new source countries emerge on the European scene. Although trafficking from South America occurs in a smaller number of countries, it is often severe in the places where it does occur. The main destinations for South American victims are Spain, Italy,
Portugal, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and Switzerland.2 Almost all of this trafficking is for the purpose of sexual exploitation and it includes transgender victims.3 Among South Americans, Brazilian victims have been increasingly detected in Europe. Trafficking originating in this country mainly affects the poor communities of the north (such as Amazonas, ParÃ¡, Roraima and AmapÃ¡), rather than the richer regions of the south. Trafficking from Africa affects mainly West African communities, in particular Nigerian women and girls.4 Trafficking originating from North Africa (Morocco and Tunisia) is still very limited, but may be increasing. Trafficking from East Africa (Uganda and Kenya) is found mainly in the United Kingdom.5 Trafficking from East Asia has traditionally involved mainly Thai women. More recently, Chinese nationals are also affected, as are women from Viet Nam and Cambodia. These women are normally exploited in indoor prostitution, such as massage parlours, saunas or beauty centres. How is the trafficking conducted? Every trafficking group has its own modus operandi for the recruitment, transportation and exploitation of victims. The most common recruiting method
3.2. WomenWomen traFFicked to europe For sexual exploitation trafficked to Europe for sexual Fig. 1: exploitation(citizenship oF victims detected), 2005-2007 (citizenship of victims detected), 2005-2007
2,348 1,000 200 50 10 1 to 5
Poland Czech Republic
Ukraine Republic of Moldova
UNODC / SCIENCES PO
used by Balkan-based groups consists of promises of employment.6 In Ukraine, traffickers entice 70% of their victims through promises of work, participation in beauty contests, modelling opportunities, affordable vacations, study abroad programmes or marriage services.7 Trafficking originating from the Balkans, the former Soviet Union and Central Europe is characterized by recruitment conducted by victimsâ€™ acquaintances. According to studies conducted in the Czech Republic,8 Poland9 and Romania,10 the majority of...