ASSIGNMENT OF CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT
Dr.(cdr) SATISH SETH SIR SUBMITTED BY:-
Q1. What is meant by the term culture? In what way can measuring attitudes about the following help to differentiate between cultures: centralized or decentralized decision making, safety or risk, individual or group rewards, high or low organizational loyalty, cooperation or competition? Use these attitudes to compare the ...view middle of the document...
Cooperation and competition varies with organizations where it depends on how the organization does. Some encourage competition yet others discourage it.
The US, Germany and Japan all have different organizations in which the centralized and decentralized decisions are made. More companies in the US promote decentralized versus in Japan, a centralized decision making group is used. In Germany and the US, risks are taken frequently and encouraged at various levels of the organization yet Japan has a much more formal risk taking strategy. Japan has much more group rewards versus the counterparts in the US and Germany in which individual bonuses are common.
Germany and parts of the US have organizations which frequently spell out the details of a project or plan but in Japan, it is considered rude and not done. In Japan and most of Germany, the loyalty of the employee is high and they frequently identify themselves as a member of an organization but in the US, titles are more frequent and people identify themselves based on their occupation.
Q2. What is meant by the term Value? Are cultural values the same worldwide, or are there marked differences? Are these values changing over time, or are they fairly constant? How does your answer relate to the role of values in a culture?
ANS:- Values are basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and what is wrong, good and bad, important and unimportant. Research shows that there are both differences and similarities between work values and managerial values of different cultural groups. Cultural differences worldwide are very different. For example, in the US, we promote individuality, freedom, competition, directness, and openness yet in Japan, the opposite can be said. They promote belonging, group harmony, group consensus, indirectness, and go-betweens. These values are individual to each country and culture and it is what defines them as a culture.
Q3. What are the four dimensions of culture studied by Geert Hofstede? Identify and describe each. What is the cultural profile of the United States? Of Asian countries? Of Latin American Countries ?Based on your comparisons of these profiles, what conclusions can you draw regarding cultural challenges facing individuals in one group when they interact with individuals in one of the other groups?
ANS:- Geert Hofstede - Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede found that there is four dimensions of culture that help explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do. These dimensions are; (1) power distance; (2) uncertainty avoidance, (3) individualism, and (4) masculinity.
Power Distance - The extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally.
3) Uncertainty Avoidance - The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these.
4) Individualism vs. Collectivism - Individualism is the...