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Human Behavior Essay

1667 words - 7 pages

TOPIC: Does Using Colored Paper Improve Learning or Academic Performance?
RELATED STUDIES/LITERATURES:
In the study entitled “A Study of the Effect of Paper Color on Test Performance in Business Communication” (2009) by Janet K. Winter and Esther J. Winter of University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg stated that, Color has been shown to affect mood and productivity in a variety of different situations. This study evaluated the performance of students in readiness-assessment quizzes in business communication classes, comparing the grades of students whose test papers were white with grades of students who received pastel-colored test papers. The results revealed that there was no ...view middle of the document...

In the study entitled “Paper Color May Have an Effect on Student Performance” (2009) by David R. Fordham, Professor, David C. Hayes, Assistant Professor of James Madison University stated that, students with white and yellow colored paper performed significantly better than students with either blue or pink colored paper. Students with green colored paper performed somewhere in the middle of the other four colors. Prior research is compared with the current study findings, and it is suggested that, given the past somewhat inconsistent findings of color effects, further research is warranted to disentangle the mixed results and instructors should consider utilizing other means to deter cheating. If an instructor feels that the only method he or she can employ to monitor cheating is to color‐code exams, the instructor should consider using a combination of white, yellow, or green pastel colored exams, and avoid blue or pink colored exams [5].
In the study “The Effect of Color on Conscious and Unconscious Cognition” (2010) by Jennifer Olsen of Carnegie Mellon University stated that colors produce different cognitive learning motivations: red produces an avoidance motivation and blue produces an approach motivation. The avoidance motivation results in better performance on detail-oriented tasks, and the approach motivation results in better performance on creative tasks. To test this prediction, the first study used a signal detection task manipulating word valence and color to independently measure (a) the ability to discriminate previously seen words from new words and (b) response bias. In the second study she used process dissociation, a method that separates conscious recollection from unconscious memory, to measure the effect of color and divided vs. full attention on a word-stem completion task. In both studies the effect of color was found to be non-significant while the secondary effects (word valence in the first study and attention in the second study) were found to be significant. These studies call into question the idea that color strongly influences cognitive task performance [6].
Color and Psychological Functioning: The Effect of Red on Performance Attainment. This research focuses on the relation between color and psychological functioning, specifically, that between red and performance attainment. Red is hypothesized to impair performance on achievement tasks, because red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and evokes avoidance motivation. Four experiments demonstrate that the brief perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ test) impairs performance, and this effect appears to take place outside of participants’ conscious awareness. Two further experiments establish the link between red and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice) and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures. The findings suggest that care must be taken in how red is used...

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