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Hospitality And Marketing Essay

1146 words - 5 pages

1. La méthodologie traditionnelle.

La méthodologie traditionnelle est également appelée méthodologie classique ou méthodologie grammaire-traduction. Elle était utilisée en milieu scolaire pour l’enseignement du latin et du grec. Puis elle a constitué une méthode d’apprentissage des langues modernes qui ont par conséquent été considérées comme des langues mortes. Elle a été largement utilisée dans l’enseignement secondaire français dans la seconde moitié du XIXème siècle. Il s’agit d’une méthodologie qui a perduré pendant plusieurs siècles et qui a contribué au développement de la pensée méthodologique. D’après Christian Puren, la méthodologie traditionnelle a donné lieu entre le ...view middle of the document...

La grammaire était enseignée de manière déductive ( on présentait d’abord la règle, puis on l’appliquait à des cas particuliers sous forme de phrases). C’est à cette époque que s’est répandue l’utilisation d’un métalangage grammatical dans l’enseignement des langues; un métalangage dont l’héritage persiste encore aujourd’hui.
Au XIXème siècle, on a pu constater une évolution de la méthodologie provoquée par l’introduction de la version-grammaire dont les pratiques consistaient à découper en parties un texte de la langue étrangère et le traduire mot à mot à la langue maternelle. Cette traduction était le point de départ d’une étude théorique de la grammaire, qui n’occupait plus une place de choix dans l’apprentissage et ne pouvait donc plus être graduée par difficultés. Par conséquent, les points grammaticaux étaient abordés dans l’ordre de leur apparition dans les textes de base.
L’instruction de l’Education Nationale du 18 septembre 1840 donnait une explication très précise de la méthodologie traditionnelle et de son application en classe de langue étrangère dans les lycées de l’époque:
La première année (...) sera consacrée tout entière à la grammaire et à la prononciation. Pour la grammaire, les élèves apprendront par cœur pour chaque jour de classe la leçon qui aura été développée par le professeur dans la classe précédente. Les exercices consisteront en versions et en thèmes, où sera ménagée l’application des dernières leçons. (...) Pour la prononciation, après en avoir exposé les règles on y accoutumera l’oreille par des dictées fréquentes, et on fera apprendre par cœur et réciter convenablement les morceaux dictés. (...) Dans la seconde année (...) les versions et les thèmes consisteront surtout en morceaux grecs et latins qu’on fera traduire en anglais et en allemand, et réciproquement. (...) Dans la troisième année, l’enseignement aura plus particulièrement un caractère littéraire.[1]
Etant donné le faible niveau d’intégration didactique que présentait cette méthodologie, le professeur n’avait pas besoin de manuel, il pouvait en effet choisir lui-même les textes en fonction de leur valeur littéraire (subjective, bien évidemment) sans tenir vraiment compte de leurs difficultés grammaticales et lexicales. Dans ces conditions, il n’existait aucun schéma de classe et les activités se juxtaposaient dans un ordre aléatoire. C’est l’enseignant qui dominait entièrement la classe et qui détenait le savoir et l’autorité, il choisissait les textes et préparait les exercices, posait les questions et corrigeait les réponses. La langue utilisée en classe était la langue...

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