Unit 5 – Anatomy& Physiology
P5 - Understand how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment
P5- Explain the concept of homeostasis
In this assignment, I will be explaining the concepts of homeostasis, and how homeostatic mechanisms operate in the maintenance of an internal environment. These consist of; heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and lastly blood glucose level.
Homeostasis is the mechanism in our bodies which regulates and maintains a stable and constant environment. Our bodies are always making adjustments to regulate normal body function; luckily these adjustments are done automatically, otherwise we would ...view middle of the document...
Spontaneous actions such as these are regulated by your autonomic nervous system. The autonomic part of your peripheral nervous system makes sure that all your internal organs and glands function efficiently.
Your autonomic nervous system has two parts: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. Both provide fundamentally the same organs but cause opposite effects. This is due to their activating chemicals, or neurotransmitters, are diverse. Often referred to as your 'fight-or-flight' system, your sympathetic nervous system prepares your body for emergencies. It shunts your blood to your muscles and increases your blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rate, enabling you to cope with stressful situations. Your parasympathetic nervous system keeps control and restores your energy. It directs blood to your digestive tract and ensures you actively digest food. It also maintains your blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rate at a low level. That's why it is sometimes called your 'rest and digest' system. (Bbc.co.uk, 2015).
The cardiac centre is positioned in the medulla oblongata of the brain. The cardiac control centre is responsible for regulating the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (Slidesharenet.co.uk, 2015). The sinoatrial node is a section of the nodal tissue. It is referred to the heart’s pacemaker. It functions to set the rate of contraction of the heart. Spontaneously, contracts and generates nerve impulses that travel all the way to the heart wall causing both atria to bond. (Biology.com, 2015).
Roles of internal receptors, autonomic nervous system-sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply, the respiratory centre, diaphragm and intercostal muscles
Internal receptors measure the quantity of carbon dioxide in the blood, and that information is being relayed and processed by the medulla oblongata, which is the respiratory centre in the brainstem. Referring back to the ANS, we know that all body systems that are involuntary are controlled by the ANS. In relation to breathing, the sympathetic system plays a role in both heart and breathing rate. For example, during exercise the body needs a greater amount of oxygen to enable for increased muscle contraction. For this to happen, the breathing rate needs to be increased, as well as he heart beat as this will allow for the increased amount of oxygen in the blood , readily reach where it is required i.e. the muscles. Now the parasympathetic nervous system in this function it keeps a stable pace for the body to rest. After exercise, it has the capability to override the sympathetic system, when the majority of waste products have been eliminated from the body. It will lower the activity of the heart and respiratory system to return the body to a normal resting state. (Gibson, 2015).
Respiratory centre consists of areas of the brain that are in charge of automatic control of breathing. Nerve cells in part of the lower brain stem, known as the...