History of the Juvenile Justice System
The code of Hammurabi is one of the earliest and best preserved set of laws from ancient Mesopotamia. The code dictates population as falling into three classes:
•Awilum- a patrician, the man family.
•Mushkenum- a beggar may have not been landless.
•Wardum- was simply a slave.
The cod e of Hammurabi was written in 1700BC. It was the law of the king Babylon and qualified as the law even the modern sense because it was presented (Horne, 2007).
Hammurabi was an ancient ruler of Babylon. His penal code promoted the “eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” way of dealing with criminals. Its purpose was to create law so that if ...view middle of the document...
The history of the juvenile justice system in both the 19th and 20th centuries were full of accounts of juveniles that were confined to various institutions where they were subjected to punitive treatment rather than rehabilitation (Bartol & Bartol, 2008).
From 1880-1920 was referred to as the Progressive Era by historians. The practice of taking custody of troubled youths under the concept of parens patriae lead many in the 1800s to question whether most youths were benefiting from this practice. It was a time for major changes in the United States. Industrialization, urbanization, and immigration quickened during this period, and the diversification of the population continued as well. The Progressive Era was a time of extensive social reform, which spanned between 1900 and 1918. Bur prior to this era child offenders over the age of seven were imprisoned with adults. The New York City of Refuge was formed in 1824 by reformers who were interested in rehabilitation rather than punishing children. These reformers were legislatives and organizations that pressured for the change to help these incorrigible children. The changes involved boot camp programs, group therapy, and social etiquette (Tanenhaus,2004). When dealing with the problem of outdated, ineffective system and centers, the proper reform is argued that states will continue to handle juvenile offenders in a manner far below national recognized standards.
The first Juvenile Court System was established in Chicago, Illinois in 1899. It was established on the principle of individualized justice, and a focus of rehabilitation of youth offenders. While due process protections were considered secondary. It was to hold them responsible for their unlawful behavior and that society would be protected through an informal justice system that focused on treatment and the best interest of the juvenile. It was also created during the transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy, and from a rural to an urban society in the U. S. (Rosenheim, 2002). It soon became important to take on a responsibility of parenting these juveniles until changes were observed, or they became adults. Some of their cases were heard in informal courts designed for children and was done sometimes with no attorneys. The reform houses they lived in were lived orphanages, many were homeless orphans (Community Action Programs, 2003).
By the 60s, jurisdiction started in courts involving individuals under 18, transferred to adult systems done only by waivers approved by a juvenile court judge. For several years now we have been pushed to punish adolescents who commit serious crimes. The wavier allows the state to petition the juvenile court to relinquish jurisdiction over these cases, thus allowing the child to be tried as an adult, or by enactment of new statues which mandate that those charged with certain crimes such as rape, armed robbery, or murder will automatically being tired as an...