History of Community Nursing Matrix
As long as people have existed, they needed to look after their health. As a result, the healthcare industry was born. Nurses were a vital part of that growing community. This paper will approach three different historical periods in the United States, discuss the nurse’s role in the community in regards to the major health issues of that period, how they partnered with the community to create new programs and finish with an intellectual discussion on how Jean Watson’s theory of Caring can be applied to the nurse’s role for each historical period.
Period 1-- 1800s:
In the early year of American settlement , female head of the family ...view middle of the document...
Nightingale’s idea of becoming a trained nurse became popular across the United States (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). During 1870s, the first nursing school based on Nightingale model opened in the United States (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). Trained nurses in the United States started to work in private duty nursing or held the few positions in the hospital administrators or instructors (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). These private duty nurses only care for wealthy people and home-visiting nurses care for sick poor (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008).
The nurse’s role in this period was to provide preventive education of communicable diseases which will decrease illness (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). The visiting nurse did prevention campaigning through the home visit and well-baby clinics (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). They worked with physicians and provided selected treatment, kept records of vital signs (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). They also educated family members how to care for the sick member and in personal and environmental prevention measures, such as good nutrition, hygiene (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008).
In 1800s, industrial revolution helped to spread of diseases. The major health care issues during this period were epidemics of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, typhoid, typhus, tuberculosis, infant mortality, and inadequate housing and sanitation (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). The public health nurses or visiting nurses were partnership with different charity organizations, American Medical Association, Red Cross, Churches (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008).
During this period nurses could use Jean Watson’s one of the carative factors “ Engaging in genuine teaching – learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting to within others’ frames of reference” (Cara, 2010). By using this factor, nurses could teach the community about diseases and how to prevent them.
In 1930s, the economical crisis influenced the development of nursing (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). During this period number of employed nurses and in the hospital and community were reduced because of reducing funding for nursing services (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). National Organization for Public Health Nursing or, NOPHN’s last minute telegraphs and lobbying helped public health nursing to include under federal relief program (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) supported nurses employment by increasing grants-in-aid for state programs of home medical care (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). FERA also helped to prevent closures of visiting nurses agencies by purchasing nursing care from them (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). In 1930s, expansion of federal government affected the structure of community health resources, which was the beginning of a new era for public nursing (Stanhope, Lancaster, 2008). The U.S. Public Health Service for the first time appointed a nurse who provided...