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Historical Development Of Nursing Timeline Essay

1199 words - 5 pages

“ …Nursing science is that body of knowledge developed form questions raised by nurses and investigated by them, concerning the relationship of the human-health-environment” as Dr. Millar stated (George, 2011, p.11). The body of nursing science consists of theories, paradigms, and frameworks (George, 2011, p. 10). A nursing theory could be defined as “ a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and /or prescribing” Nursing theories are ...view middle of the document...

1960s-The thoeretical thinking moved to recognition of relationship between nurse and patient even more. In 1960s the difference between levels of education was also recognized, stating the need of two levels of education for nurses: technical nurse at the associate degree level and professional nurse at the baccalaurate level (George, 2011). F. Abdellah (1960) recognized and emphasized the need to deliver nursing care to the whole person in order to meet physical, emotional, social, intelectual and spiritual needs of client and family. The other two prominent nurse theorists of 1960s would be I. Orlando (1962), who also recognized client as individual with a need; and D. Johnson (1968), who focused on client’s ability to adapt and how the the ability to adapt could be affected by stress or illness.

1970s- The National League for Nursing (NLN) requered nursing school to have an a conceptual framework for the curricula as an accreditation standard (George, 2011). The this decade many more nursing theories were first presented after being revised. Among the most important theories would be M. Rogers’ theory to maintain and promote health, prevent illness and care for and rehabilitate client through “humanistic science of nursing”; D. Orem’s theory, which is a self-deficit theory; I.King’s theory (1971) on how to use communication to help clients to reastablish positive adaptation to the environment; Sr. C. Roy’s theory ( 1976) that provided adaprtion model; and J. Watson’s theory (1979) that described the philosophy of caring.

1980s- During this decade Nursing had moved from medical aspects of patient care that was emphasized during the previous decades in embracing the social and behavioral sciences. The most prominent nursing theories that emerged during 1980s would include H. Erickson, E. Tomlin, and M. Swain’s Modeling and Role Modeling Theory (1983); D. Johnson’s The Behavioral System Model for Nursing (1980); M. Rogers’ A Science of Unitary Beings (1983); and C. Roy’s The Roy Adaptation Model (1980).

1990s- That decade was marked by expansion of middle range nursing theories to guide nursing practice. Numerous research projects were done to support those nursing theories and to provide the base for evidence-based practice. The other important milestone of 1990s would the internationalization of nursing theories as it was evidenced by international conferences and publications (George, 2011). Many nursing models were revised and republished. Among already familiar theories and names from previous decades, the most important nursing theories of 1990s would include: K. Kolcaba’s A Theory of Holistic Comfort for Nursing (1994); C. Roy’s Future of the Roy Model (1997); B. Neuman’s The Neuman Systems Model in Research and Practice (1996); M.E. Levine’s The Rhetoric of Nursing Theory (1995) and other multiple theories.

2000s – The beginning of new millennium was characterized by acceptance of diversity of...

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