Historical Development Of Nursing Timeline Essay

1384 words - 6 pages

Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

NUR/513
February 25th, 2013
Michelle Johnson, EdD, RN, CPNP

Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

The profession of nursing is unique they work in diverse settings, various fields, and are at the forefront of health care. Nursing is an art and science, recognized by several theorists, educators, and innovators dating back to the 1700s. The theories have evolved through time and are still in use in the current practice of nursing of the 21st century. Nursing focuses on the patient, but there are many additional aspects to nursing care. There are four concepts central to ...view middle of the document...

Florence Nightingale (1860)
Nightingale is recognized as the first theorist, researcher, and founder of modern nursing. Since 1800’s her influence has continued into the 21st century in the concept of environmental theory to improve one’s health. Her legacy of caring theory was to heal from inside, her observation was of the sick or in need of health care, especially the underserved. Her emphasis on the environment was the benefits of clean air, pure water, cleanliness, food, sanitation, and fresh light. She had documentation and data collection, much like common day, and her concepts are in use for today’s standards.
Hildegard E. Peplau (1952)
Peplau’s psychodynamic nursing theory focus on the nurse and client interpersonal relationships three phases are orientation, identification, exploitations, and resolution. The interaction begins upon admission when the nurse is a stranger, next is the working interaction, and when the client’s needs have been met, client terminates the relationship.
Virginia Henderson (1955)
Henderson definition of nursing emphasized doing for clients the task they are cannot do themselves, to achieve independence so not to delay progress during the hospitalization. She has 14 basic needs on which nursing care is based. They include breathing, eating and drinking, eliminating, moving, sleeping and resting, dressing and undressing appropriately, maintaining body temperature, keeping clean and protecting the skin, avoid danger and injury to others, communicating, worshiping, working, playing, and learning (George, 2011).
Ernestine Wiedenbach (1958)
Wienenbach the helping art of clinical nursing, proposed the theory that every client’s care is to individual plan of care for specific need. The areas nurses should identify the problems by observation, understanding the behavior, cause of discomfort, and determine if a client needs assistance or can rectify own problem.
Faye Abdellah (1960)
Fay’s typology of 21 nursing problems, focus was the patient, not the disease, and thus patient-centered care evolved in the nursing arena. There were 21 problems identified easy to apply to nursing care of the client and characterized by assessment phase, nursing diagnosis, planning phase, implementation, and evaluation. Her theory for care was holistic where treat the whole person, in meeting the physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs.
Ida Jean Orlando (1962)
Orlando’s nursing process theory in that the nurse must stay connected with the client as in individual with a need, when met distress will decrease, adequacy increases, and overall well-being is enhanced.
Joy Travelbee (1966)
Joyce’s human to human relationship model is with the interaction between the client and the nurse, human-to-human relationship. The give phases of human-to-human relationship are encounter, identities, empathy, sympathy, and rapport (George, 2011).
Dorothy E. Johnson (1968)
Johnson’s behavioral system model is that...

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