Running head: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING 1
Historical Development of Nursing
Theoretical Foundations of Practice NUR 513
May 31, 2014
Dr. Noura Kassis
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING 2
Historical Development of Nursing
The development of nursing has made giant leaps throughout the last century. Starting with Florence Nightingale, the history of nursing will be discussed. A few significant events, theories and theorists will be depicted. In addition, the relationship between nursing science and the profession will be described. Moreover, the influences on nursing science of other disciplines will be mentioned. ...view middle of the document...
The National League for Nursing (NLN) was the first nursing organization in the United States, dedicated to excellence in nursing education and founded in 1893 (http://www.nln.org/aboutnln). In 1901, the
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United States Army Nurse Corps (www.goarmy.com/Nurse/Corps) was established, followed by the United States Navy Corps (www.navy.com/nurses) in 1908 and the American Red Cross Nursing Service (http://www.redcross.org/about-us/history) in 1909. In 1911, the American Nurses Association was created to establish a code for professional nursing (http://www.nursingworld.org/history). The necessity for well defined and educated nurses was apparent.
Jumping to the 1950’s, advanced nursing education was commencing. In this decade, Columbia University Teacher’s College (CUTC) developed a graduate education program to prepare nurses for administrative and faculty positions whereby the graduates cited the first theoretical conceptualizations of nursing science (George, 2011). This was influential in the history of nursing not only as a science but also as a profession. A renowned graduate of CUTC was Hildegard Peplau. In 1952, Peplau developed the nursing theory of interpersonal relation (Senn, 2013). Peplau’s theory suggests that a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient, and understanding human behaviors can produce desirable goals that benefit the patient (Senn, 2013).
Based on Peplau’s theory, the 1960’s nursing theorists shifted their focus from a problem, needs, and functional role to focusing on the relationship between the nurse and the patient (George, 2011). Building a relationship between the nurse and the patient is significant towards the recovery of the patient. It establishes a rapport with the patient so that there is less stress and better communication, resulting in a smoother patient recovery.
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During the 1970’s, several nursing theories were presented whereby the NLN required nursing schools to implement a conceptual framework for the curricula as an accreditation standard (George, 2011). Dorothea Orem published the model of self care in 1971. Comprised of theory of self care, self care deficit, and nursing system; nursing care becomes necessary when the patient is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental or social needs (George, 2011). This was the conceptual model used at the nursing school I attended.
Another theorist that I admire from the 1970’s is Betty Neuman. From the principles of her psychological background, Neuman’s theory states that interaction with internal and external environment embracing the whole client system can affect an individual (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). Simply stated, reduce stress.
The 1980’s provided expansion and revision to many nursing theories based on research findings (George, 2011). Further research and broadening of nursing theories continued into the...