Historical Development of Nursing Timeline
January 1, 2015
Historical Development of Nursing
The historical development of nursing today is based upon the lives of many, their contributions, sacrifices and experiences. These things brought about renovations in patient care. Different ways of thinking led to research, theories and evidenced based practice. The importance of studying nursing history has led to overall progression of nursing as a profession. In order to fully study the historical development of nursing we need to study all aspects of nursing science throughout time, explain the relationships between nursing science and our profession, as ...view middle of the document...
She then decided to be a nurse, and was the only woman allowed to travel in General Sherman’s army. In the south was Captain Sally Tompkins, the only commissioned officer in the civil war in order to commandeer supplies. She converted her Richmond home to the largest and lowest death rate hospital in the war, which was ran by Phoebe Levy Pember. Linda Richard was the first professionally trained American nurse. As did Linda Richards, Mary Mahoney graduated from Dr. Zakrewska’s nursing school, and was the first credentialed African American Nurse. She formed the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses, due to issues. It was then disbanded in 1951 when the ANA recognized African American Nurses (Weathorford, 2014).
From the Civil War to the 20th century nursing went from a view of a menial to honorable profession. In 1892 Congress initialized pay for Civil War nurses, which led to transition of nursing from the home to hospitals and clinics (Weathorford, 2014). Lastly in the 1800’s nursing schools were starting to be established. Lilian Wald coined the term Public Health Nursing, which focused on caring for sick, poor and mentally ill. In 1893 she taught home nursing to immigrant women.
20th century. Many theorists, theories, and historical events influenced the development of professional nursing in the 1900’s. Virginia Henderson’s Needs Theory focuses on patient independence from beginning of care to discharge, so they won’t be readmitted for the same. Her theory discusses: breathing normally, adequate nutrition, eliminating bodily waste, movements, rest, ADL’s, avoiding dangers and hurting others, communication techniques, religion, and the nurse’s role in ensuring patient’s comply to care plan to prepare for discharge (“Nursing Theory, 2013).
Faye Abdellah in the 1950’s developed the Contribution to Nursing Theory: 21 Nursing Problems. Abdellah states nurses should focus on patient centered care. She developed 10 steps to identify patient problems, and 11 nursing skills. Even though Ida Jean Orlando developed the Deliberate Nursing Theory in 1961, Abdellah’s ideas could easily be summarized by it. Orlando’s theory includes: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluating (“Nurse Theory,” 2013). In 1951 the following occurred: American Nurses Association was formed, male nurses are recognized as registered nurses for the first time, vocational nursing standards were set, and in 1952 Paplau presented the Interpersonal Relations Theory. It focuses on building patient trust, being a resource, teaching, counseling, advocating, leadership, and professionals to optimize best patient care with resources/equipment available (“Nursing Theory”, 2013).
Other theorists from the 1900’s, specifically between 1960-1980 were Weidenbach’s Competency Theory and Ethical Theory, Travelbee’s Interpersonal Theory, and Levine’s Adaptation Theory. In the 1960’s the changed from problems/needs to the functional...