Re-examination of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in the Korean Army foodservice operations
A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE
Major: Foodservice and Lodging Management Program of Study Committee: Haemoon Oh, Co-major Professor Robert H. Bosselman, Co-major Professor Miyoung Jeong Mack C Shelley
Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 2009
UMI Number: 1464349
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3 Data Collection 3.4 Data Analysis CHAPTER 4. RESULTS 4.1 Profile of Respondents 4.2 Predicting Job Satisfaction 4.2.1 Comparison of job satisfaction for two different groups 4.2.2 Comparison of job satisfaction among different rank groups 4.3 Re-examination of Herzberg’s Two Factor theory of Motivation 4.4 Priority of Motivation Factors CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Implication 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Limitation and future study APPENDIX A. COVER LETTER APPENDIX B. SURVEY INSTRUMENT ii iii iv 1 1 3 4 5 6 6 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 16 17 20 20 22 22 23 25 29 33 33 36 36 39 41
APPENDIX C. STATISTIAL RESULTS BIBLIOGRAPHY ACKOWLEDGEMENTS
47 49 54
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. The organizational structure of the Third Army Corps for sampling process 16
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction of MSQ Table 2. Demographic information of the respondents in the two groups Table 3. Comparison of job satisfaction between two sample groups Table 4. Simple statistics regarding job satisfaction Table 5. Tamhane multiple comparisons of job satisfaction scores by the different rank groups Table 6. Results of factor analysis on motivators and hygiene factors Table 7. Cronbach’s alpha for motivators and hygiene factors Table 8. The effects of motivators and hygiene factors on job satisfaction Table 9. Regression results for predicting job satisfaction for each sample group 19 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 32
The validity of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation was tested empirically by using the data obtained from foodservice soldiers and logistics officers serving in the Korean Army foodservice operation. This study also attempts to compare general job satisfaction between both sample groups and assess the effect of Herzberg’s motivators and hygiene factors on general job satisfaction so as to prioritize the importance of the motivation factors. The results showed there was a statistically significant difference in job satisfaction between the foodservice soldiers and logistics officers. Additionally, the results regarding Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory were quite opposite between the two sample groups. Foodservice soldiers showed that hygiene factors were more powerful predictors of general job satisfaction than motivators. On the other hand, motivators had a more significant association with logistics officers’ general job satisfaction than hygiene factors. A multiple regression model including 15 different motivation factors was used to evaluate the relative importance of the 15 motivation factors. For foodservice soldiers, human supervision and independence factors were ranked first and second, respectively. Whereas, achievement and working condition factors were identified as the most important motivation factors for logistics officers to boost general job satisfaction. Key Words: motivators; hygiene factors; job satisfaction; Two-Factor Theory of Motivation, Herzberg; foodservice...