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Heredity And Disease Essay

2293 words - 10 pages

Hereditary Diseases and their Preventions

Definition:

Hereditary Diseases are the inherited abnormal congenital diseases/ defects caused by gene defects from the parents, fore fathers, grandfathers, grandmothers etc. Over 2300 hereditary diseases have been diagnosed/ identified.

Genes and their Functions:

Genes are units which are composed of DNAs, RNAs and chromosomes etc. These are the units of heredity which determine a particular character of an individual and transmit hereditary information from generation to generation with hereditary character and the variation of inherited character. They contain the hereditary information’s encoded in their chemical structure for ...view middle of the document...

Often we use the comparative words such as intelligence, more intelligence, most intelligent or less intelligent, intelligent, very intelligent, extremely/ very highly intelligent, extra ordinarily intelligent. So as to score high IQ there was proposed attempt to use donor Nobel Laureate’s sperms for fertilization with ova of highly intelligent educated women. However it was not wholly, fully accepted on social, religious and medical ethics.

It is said that we inherit about 50,000 genes from the father and 50,000 genes from the mother. Gene occurs in pairs and if the pairs are alike (AA) then the individual is described as homozygous for the gene and if they are of different pairs (Aa) then the individual is described as heterozygous. The genetic sex of XX chromosome determines female and XY chromosome determines male. They affect development and function both in the normal and abnormal individuals.

According to many authors, genetically coordinated, related disease or diseases account for 25-40% of all cases treated by health services.

Genetics :

Genetics are the studies of genes of Hereditary and variation of inherited character. As genes affect development and functions in both normal and abnormal individuals, the study of genetics with different branches such as immuno-genetics, population genetics, cytogenetics, microbial genetics, clinical genetics, pharmaco genetics, biochemical genetics etc. play a pivotal role in the milestones of human development and the medical and social preventive measures and medical ethics. Plants genetics in high breed and animal genetics in high breed and cross breed clonning are also of special interests for the animal scientist, vetinararians and plants scientist.

Genetics Diseases:

1. Diabetes Mellitus: It is due to high blood sugar level (80-120mg%-normal) and is caused by auto-immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency whereas Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is due to the resistance of insulin and inability to produce sufficient insulin to overcome insulin resistance. About one-third of the Diabetes Type 1 is due to genetic pre-disposition. In first degree of the relative of patients, if father is diabetic the risk is 9%, mother is diabetic 3%, both father and mother-30%, identical twins-35%, non-identical twins-20%, HAL-identical sibling-16% non HAL identical sibling-3%. Clinical features-complaints-tiredness, fatigue, itching over the body including (Private parts, pruritus vulvae, balanitis,) weight loss, diminished vision sometimes with lost vision (retinopathy), Nephropathy affecting kidney, Neuropathy (feet).

2. Hypertension: Hypertension is High Blood Pressure. It is a chronic condition due to causation of coronary heart diseases, stroke and other vascular complication involving liver, kidneys, lungs etc. Hypertension (HTN) is also associated with family backgrounds of hereditary diseases of the hypertensive...

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