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Henry The Viii Essay

1444 words - 6 pages

1. Cells

1.1 Describe the structure and function of animal cells to include:
* cell membrane
* Exhibits selective permeability, regulates the passage of material into and out of the cell.
* Lipid membrane one factor responsible for the control of material into and out of the cell, in addition to the proteins in the membrane.
* Hydrophobic interior prevents charged or v. Polar molecules from diffusing across membrane. Small non-charged can pass through
* cytoplasm
* nucleus: carries the genetic information
* Mitochondrion.

1.2Describe the structure and function of plant cells to include:
* cell membrane
* cytoplasm
* nucleus
* cell wall
* ...view middle of the document...

Equalise solute concentration.

3. Cell division and sex determination

3.1 Mitosis:
a. define as cell division that produces daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes so are genetically identical. Know it produces two daughter cells
b. recall the role of mitosis in growth and repair, plus replacement.

3.2 Meiosis:
a. define as cell division that produces daughter cells, known as gametes, which have a single set of chromosomes (are haploid)
b. recall the role of meiosis in reducing the chromosome number so that full chromosome complement is restored at fertilisation.

3.3 Asexual and sexual reproduction:
a. understand that asexual reproduction involves one parent and offspring are genetically identical
b. recall that asexual reproduction produces clones
c. understand that sexual reproduction involves two parents and offspring are genetically different, leading to (increased) variation.

3.4 Sex determination:
* recall that, in most mammals, females are XX and males are XY
* be able to establish the gender of offspring
* work out gender ratio.

4. Inheritance

4.1 Recall the nucleus as a site of genetic material/chromosomes/genes in plant and animal cells.

4.2 Describe and understand the following genetic terms:
* Genes: elements of DNA that are responsible for observed traits. Found in large linear chromosomes, each chromosome is a very log DNA double helix. Each chromosome contains a specific sequence of genes arranged along its length. Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome.
* Alleles: different versions of the same gene. The two copies can have a different sequence in an organism, and a gene can have multiple variations in a population.
* Dominant: is expressed in an organism regardless of the second allele
* Recessive: both recessive alleles are needed for the gene to be expressed
* Heterozygous: an individual that has two different alleles for a gene
* Homozygous: an individual that has two copies of a gene that are identical
* Phenotype: appearance and physical expression of genes, determined by the genotype
* Genotype: the type of alleles an organism has, genetic composition

4.3 Monohybrid crosses:
* use and interpret genetic diagrams to depict monohybrid crosses
* use family pedigrees/family trees
* express outcome as ratio, numbers or percentage
* Understand the concept of inherited disease and the use of screening to identify it, e.g. cystic fibrosis.

5. DNA

5.1 Understand that chromosomes contain DNA.

5.2 Describe the structure of DNA.
DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code.
Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure...

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