Running head: HEALTH PROMOTION
Health Promotion: Reduction of Stroke Deaths
Jeffrey M. Heist
Indiana State University
The development of health care policy in the United States has historically, been based on the fact that clinicians were responsible to treat primary illness rather than the promotion of health as it related to personal health behaviors (U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, 2011). This paper will examine the Healthy People 2020 objective HDS-3, Reducing Stroke Deaths (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011), and how the promotion of this objective has progressed since it’s Healthy People 2010, 12-7, predecessor.
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The 15 topics in 1990 have ballooned to 39 in HP 2020 and the objectives have went from 226 to >580 respectively (Centers for Disease Control, 2011). These changes show how our knowledge of health care deficits has greatly expanded over the years. With the increased knowledge comes an increase in realization that non-health sectors in the U. S have a role in addressing health issues. Healthy People 2020 (2011) is now including education, housing, environment, transportation, labor and agriculture as a means to define and improve the U.S. health care delivery.
I have specifically chosen to address the HP 2020, HDS-3 objective of reducing stroke deaths (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2010) as the basis many for this paper. While the reduction of stroke deaths is included under the topic of Heart Disease and Stroke, many of the same objectives are intertwined with the general goal of positively affecting cardiovascular disease patterns. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and when combined with the health problems associated with heart disease, they are the most costly health problems facing the U.S., accounting for more than $500 billion in 2010 (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). The primary goal of HP 2020 as it relates to stroke is to: “improve cardiovascular health and quality of life though prevention, detection and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke; early identification and treatment of heart attacks and strokes; and prevention of repeat cardiovascular events” (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).
In comparing data from Health People (HP) 2010 to Healthy People (HP) 2020 the baseline rate of stroke deaths (per 100,000population) have significantly decreased (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). The HP 2010/HP 2020 initiatives showed the following data:
Table 1: HP definition comparisons
Stroke Data for HP 2010 & HP 2020 Comparison(all measure is per 100,000 pop.) |
| HP 2010 | HP 2020 |
Baseline/Yr. | 62/1999 | 42.2/2007 |
Target | 50 | 33.8 |
Target setting | 20% improve | 20% improve |
(Centers for Disease Control, 2001) (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2010)
According to the National Stroke Association (2011), the annual stroke death rate 35% between the years of 1998-2008. During 2000, stroke deaths accounted for 167,000 persons and was the third leading cause of death in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001). Currently, stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States with an annual death rate of 133,000 persons (National Stroke Association, 2011).
As discussed earlier, the HP 2020 initiative is also addressing the relationships that education, environment, transportation and agriculture may have on health care and health disparities. These disparities, related to cardiovascular care are significant and disproportionately...