Type 2 Diabetes in Carbon County
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can often be prevented by an increase in healthy behaviors. Despite this fact, “the number of persons at high risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing all over the world” (Korkiakangas, Taanila, & Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, 2011). Carbon County Pennsylvania is one area where this disease is on the rise. It used to be referred to as adult onset diabetes because it was commonly seen in older adults, but today there is also a high incidence seen in teens and even children as young as four years old (Bowden, 2012). The increase in obesity among children is most likely the cause (Schub & Caple, 2011). A ...view middle of the document...
The county does already have some programs in place which could help in the fight for better health. The local pharmacy in the county offers free diabetes seminars each month (Carbon, 2012). The local hospital system also provides diabetes education, community wellness programs, and a fitness center (Blue, 2009). A search of the yellow pages also reveals that there are nine different fitness centers available in the county. For those who need transportation, the county does provide door to door transportation (Carbon, 2012).
The Health Problem
Type 2 diabetes is a problem in the way the body uses insulin (PubMed, 2011). Normally insulin is used to move blood sugar into cells where it is stored to be used for energy later (PubMed, 2011). This form of diabetes develops when muscle cells become resistant to insulin and are unable to store blood sugar for energy (PubMed 2011). The blood sugar that cannot get into the cells remains in the blood and causes hyperglycemia. The blood wants to drop it off somewhere so it drops it into the fat cells (Bowden, 2012). However, the high levels of insulin the body has made to try to decrease the blood sugar will eventually close the doors in the fat cells which will make losing weight difficult (Bowden, 2012). Then the fat cells secrete hormones that are meant to keep you fat (Bowden, 2012).
In addition to decreased energy stores, this disease can have long-term negative effects on the body. When the disease persists the individual can develop eye problems, problems with wound healing, foot problems, nerve damage, and kidney damage (PubMed, 2011).
While there are risk factors for type 2 diabetes that cannot be changed, there are also many factors which can. Excess body weight and especially excess weight around the mid-section are risk factors for this disease (Schub & Caple, 2011). Low activity level and a poor diet can also increase the incidence (PubMed, 2011). A poor diet may include an increase in food or drinks which have high amounts of sugar, or are high in fat or low in fiber (Schub & Caple, 2011). Other contributing factors may be high blood pressure, HDL cholesterol less than 35mg/dL and triglycerides over 250 mg/dL (PubMed, 2011). Most of these risk factors can be prevented by maintaining a healthy diet, a healthy body weight, and staying active (PubMed, 2011). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) have found that weight loss and increased physical activity can decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes 58 percent in a three year period.
Studies of Current Interventions
Korkiakangas et al (2011) conducted a study to assess the motivators and barriers to physical activity for individuals at risk of Type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise has been shown to increase glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (Korkiakangas et al., 2011). The study started with 522 participants and then had a follow up where 134 participants answered open ended...