Health outcomes refer to the changes in the health status of individuals or the population. The outcomes are attributed to multiple or planned interventions, whether or not the intention of the intervention was to alter the health status. These interventions include health services and programs including health promotion programs, government policies, laws and regulations, and consequent programs. Intervention may also include unintended or intended health outcomes of government policies in areas besides health. Health outcomes are evaluated by health indicators (World Health Organization, 1998).
Health indicators are a single measure, represented quantitatively, that ...view middle of the document...
Studies have suggested that the emotional health of pre-adolescents is related to their parent’s religious practices (The Heritage Foundation, 2011).
Children are born into a complex environment which can have negative and positive effects on their health (Rigby &ump; Kohler, 2002). Many services such as the Center for Adolescent Services, the Ounce of Prevention, Care Source and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are available to promote, protect, and address specific child health population problems. Measuring the health of children is important because the youth are citizens that are unable to act as self-advocates at the population level and their health determines the health of the population in the future. Child health measurement indicators are central in identifying priorities, progress, problems, newly emergent issues, and changes over time (Rigby &ump; Kohler, 2002). Youth violence, childhood obesity, childhood asthma, and pre-term births are a few childhood indicators that will be presented in the succeeding sections. The indicators and data presented pertain to the state of Ohio, specifically Montgomery and Summit County, and the Wellness Matters areas.
Youth violence, both interpersonal and self-directed, can result in serious physical and emotional consequences for both the victims and perpetrators of the violent offenses. One needs to look no further than the most recent school shootings, or scan the local newspapers for examples of troubled youth tragically taking their own lives in order to understand the toll of youth violence. In 2007 the National Survey on Drug Use and Health Report found that 18 percent of adolescents reported carrying a knife or gun to school, 35.5 percent had been in a physical fight in the past year and 4.2 percent had been in a serious fight requiring medical attention in the past year (Ferguson, 2010).While these numbers are disputed by data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) presented below (See Appendix Table.1-2), both sets of data indicate the continued prevalence of youth violence.
Evidence is accumulating that concludes those perpetrators of violent offenses have mental health issues at greater rates than the non-offending population. Therefore, the juvenile justice system is a logical point of intervention for these mental health issues (Ferguson, 2010). Early recognition of those mental health issues that predispose youth to violence could be a method of preventing future violence. Additional, evidence supports this early recognition by stating that certain difficulties in childhood can predispose children to violence as they become young adults (Mallett, 2009).
Lastly, the juvenile justice system fails to appropriately diagnose and manage the mental health issues of young offenders. Thus understanding this failure could lead to the development of evidence-based practices for diagnosing and managing mental health disorders in these...