Child Growth and Development
Home and Family Life
June 10, 2009
Growth and Development
For every human being, the process of growth and development begins at birth and continues until we die. Growth is defined as the process of increasing in physical size, while development is the process of maturation and the refinement of body systems, thought processes and judgment.
Child development unfolds in a complex manner as he or she interacts with the surrounding environment. Although some children may grow and develop a little earlier or later than others, they tend to follow a general pattern of progression. A child's development can be followed by how they play, learn, speak, and behave. ...view middle of the document...
The child was learning how to communicate by pointing at pictures she recognized in a book and naming the particular object, she could also point out some parts of her body when I asked her to, such as “tummy” and “nose” the child could also put two to three words together and make simple sentences such as “my ball” and “more cookie”. She was also able to refer to her teachers by name, and would repeat words that she heard me or the teacher say and was clearly happy when we encouraged her by saying “good job!” In order to promote communication with her, simple language and short sentences were used as well as constantly encouraging the child even when she did not get a word right.
Many theories have been developed to help provide a framework for proper child development. However, these theories are not absolute and do not provide all the necessary information for growth and development. According to most of the theories I explored, the child observed seemed to be in the expected stage of development.
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
According to Erikson’s theory, the two year old is in the developmental stage of “autonomy versus shame and doubt”. During this stage the child tries to have a sense of independence which is evidenced by answering questions, cleaning after oneself, or learning to control bowel and bladder. If the child is constantly criticized for not getting things right, he or she ends up developing a sense of shame about themselves and feeling doubtful in their abilities. It is important for the child to develop a sense of independence and self direction and at the same time recognize the feelings and needs of others so as not to disregard the need to interact and work with others.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget’s theory of cognitive or intellectual development proposed that intelligence consists of interaction and coping with one’s environment. He believed that a child’s view of the world is influenced largely by age, experience and maturational ability.
According to this theory, the child is in the sensorimotor stage. She has gone through the substages of using reflexes, primary, secondary and tertiary circular reactions and is now at the stage of mental combinations. At this stage the toddler is learning how to use numbers letters and language as tools; he or she can use language to think about objects or events. The child understands the world through mental operations rather than only through actions. The child observed seemed to have fully developed “object permanence”, which is the ability to understand that when something is out of sight, it still exists; this was demonstrated by the child searching for objects that were out of view
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive development...