Course Governance in Zimbabwe
1. The negotiations for transition in Zimbabwe were essentially about preserving white interests in Zimbabwe. Discuss in relation with the (i) The Home-Smith Settlement Proposals, (ii)Détente, (ii) The Anglo-American Initiative, (iii)The Geneva Conference and (iv) The Malta Conference
During the struggle of Zimbabwe, when the war between the nationalist and the Smith regime was intensifying efforts were made by various countries such as Britain, South Africa, United States of America, Zambia, Botswana and Malawi to find or to implement peaceful ways by which Southern Rhodesia would achieve its ...view middle of the document...
Under these, the 1969 Rhodesian Constitution (which permanently denied Africans a majority in the House of Assembly) would be modified. (Ngunyoni and Nyandoro1979; p224) The African franchise would be considerably widened, and provision for unimpeded progress towards majority rule made.
Under the Home- Smith settlement Individual ownership of land on Africans was returned but Africans were forced to accept a constitution which returned the Land tenure Act, whose purpose was to entrench half of the country 44, 948,300 acres for use by the 249 000 whites. On the issue of ownership of houses and buildings in the urban areas they were reserved for the whites and the communal areas for the blacks, if a black owns a house in the urban areas it would be under strict supervision of the government. (Ngunyoni and Nyandoro1979; p 222) From the above contention one can note that the Home Smith settlements entrenched the interest of the white settlers for instance the whites knew that industry and commerce would grow in the urban areas hence it made them strong in terms of economy.
The Home Smith proposals also entrenched the settler’s interests for instance; for one an African inorder to go to a secondary school, the educational qualifications required a combination with either income or immovable assert. (Meredith 1979; p167) European education was made free whilst education for Africans was not. Under these policies only 12, 5 % of African children were able to go to secondary schools; the number of Africans going to school was kept in check. (Meredith 1979; p163)
When it comes to the Declaration of rights it was also included in the proposals but, looking at it closely one might discover that it was ineffectual and of little value to the citizens (Black citizens). Under the declaration of rights in the proposals courts would not be able to exercise any powers if measures taken against an individual or a group of individuals who were taken under legislation passed more than 10 years before the Declaration of Rights came into force from this one can note that these provisions were aimed at protecting all oppressive and discriminatory legislation. According to Joshua Nkomo “… these proposals are a superficial modification of the 1969 illegal constitution whose main purpose is to entrench, maintain and enforce the oppressive and discriminatory practises in this country permanently” (Ngunyoni and Nyandoro1979 p221) With the failure of the Home Smith proposal and with the winds of change affecting Angola this led to adaption of another tactic the Détente.
It was engineered by the arch- apartheidist John Vorster of South Africa. In a speech to the South African Senate on 23 October I974, Prime Minister Vorster declared that the situation in Southern Africa had reached a point at which a choice had to be made between peaceful negotiations on the one hand, or escalating strife on the other. He offered Africa 'the way of peace'. Within three...