Golden Age Of Pericles Essay

1910 words - 8 pages

9/13/2008

Plato Ethical Realist Ethical Objectivist Ethical Absolutist

Pericles (Περικλῆς) c. 495 – 429 B.C.E.

Pericles

Golden Age of Pericles

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Ancient Athens

The Acropolis with Parthenon

Parthenon

Parthenon

Detail of Parthenon

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Statue of Athena in Parthenon

Statue of Athena in Parthenon

Theatre in Athens

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Theatre in Athens

Theatre in Athens

Pericles

The Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War

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Sophist

―Sophist‖ means ―wise one‖!

Sophist

Or ―wise guy‖!

There are no schools, no universities yet!

People of Athens

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...view middle of the document...

428/427 – c. 348/347 B.C.E) Death of Socrates

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Socrates’ death is all because of the relativism of the Sophists!

Plato’s Dialogues
Therefore Relativism must be destroyed! Early Period

Middle Period

Late Period

Plato’s Dialogues
Early Period: Give us the historical Socrates Early Period:

Plato’s Dialogues

Middle Period:

Middle Period: Plato’s own views put on Socrates’ lips as a tribute

Late Period:

Late Period:

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Plato’s Dialogues
Early Period: Early Period:

Plato’s Dialogues
Give us the historical Socrates

Middle Period:

Mixture of the historical Socrates & Plato’s own views put on Socrates’ lips as a tribute

Middle Period:

Mixture of the historical Socrates & Plato’s own views put on Socrates’ lips as a tribute Plato’s own views put on Socrates’ lips as a tribute

Late Period:

Late Period:

Plato’s Argument for Objective Moral Values
1. 2. Words (―cat‖ and ―dog) do not refer to material objects (Morris and Lassie) arbitrarily. In order for words to not refer to material objects arbitrarily, there must be one single essence that all the material objects referred to by a word have in common. But, material objects change all the time, whereas essences never— can never—change. Thus, essences cannot be material objects, i.e., they must be immaterial entities. But immaterial entities exist outside of space and time and are, therefore, abstract, pure, and, thus, perfect exemplars. They are, thus, the Forms of material objects. Since essences are immaterial entities, they cannot be known by the senses. Therefore, essences can only be known by the soul (eye of the mind) through a process of mystical intuition known as the Dialectic. They are, thus, the Ideas of material objects.

3. 4. 5.

Plato’s Divided Line

6. 7.

Objects
The Good

States of Mind
Intelligence (Noesis) Knowledge (Episteme)

Justice

Man

Beauty

Understanding (Dianoia)

Opinion / Faith (Pistis)

Plato’s Vision of the Just Man and the Just State

Imagining (Eikasia)

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The Soul
Do you wonder what I discovered when I beheld the Form of Justice? Reason

The State
Philosophers

Justice in Man = Harmony of Parts = Reason in Control

Justice in State = Harmony of Parts = Philosophers in Control

Plato’s Argument for Objective Moral Values
1. 2. Words (―cat‖ and ―dog) do not refer to material objects (Morris and Lassie) arbitrarily. In order for words to not refer to material objects arbitrarily, there must be one single essence that all the material objects referred to by a word have in common. But, material objects change all the time, whereas essences never— can never—change. Thus, essences cannot be material objects, i.e., they must be immaterial entities. But immaterial entities exist outside of space and time and are, therefore, abstract, pure, and, thus, perfect exemplars....

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