ï»¿Chapter 1 The Paradoxes in Global Marketing Communications
Paradox: statement that seems contradictory but is actually true. Eg/ â€œthink global, act localâ€ in global marketing
Global-Local Paradox â€“ People are inclined to see similarities from the framework of their own culture.
Technology Paradox - Convergence of technology is not the same as convergence of pepoleâ€™s values and habits. Instead, technology reinforces the differences and together with increased wealth leads to divergent behavior instead of convergence. People will embrace new technology to do the things they are used to doing, but in a nicer or more efficient way.
Media Paradox - Growing number of satellites may ...view middle of the document...
In developed world, economic convergence â€“ majority of people have enough to eat and extra income to spend elsewhere. But motives for purchase not converged. Macro level.
But as people become well educated and more affluent, their tastes actually diverge. Cultural values become manifest when basic needs satisfied. The wealthier countries become the more manifest is the influence of culture on consumption and consumer behavior Eg/ Europe
Global-Local Dilemma in Global Marketing â€“ Whether to sell an identical product throughout the companyâ€™s sales are or to make whatever modifications needed to account for local differences.
Needs may be universal but attitudes, motivations, and expressions of needs vary across the globe.
Argument for global standardization based on 2 assumptions:
Convergence of consumer behavior
Existence of globally uniform segments, or global communities with similar lifestyles across borders.
Levitt: driving forces for convergence of needs and desires are technology and modernity. Standardization enables a company to compete on the basis of appropriate value (price, quality, reliability etc) WRONG
Contingency perspective: the most effective advertising strategy varies depending on the situation
Variables Influencing the Standardization-Adaptation Decision:
1. The product â€“ different points in life cycle requires different advertising
2. Company and its culture â€“ culture of companyâ€™s country strongly influences the vision of its manager, which affects degree of standardization
3. Business environment â€“ Infra, competition, laws and regulations, etc. Particularly, existence of international media (for standardization)
4. The Consumer â€“ lifestyles, preferences, tastes, culture climate, language, spending power.
Chapter 2 Global Branding
Brand: a site to produce perceived uniqueness of products and services, to differentiate against competition, and to build intangible value in the form of customer goodwill, trust, and loyalty. Emotional benefits/values added to give distinct identity. Creates consumer communities â€œstorytellersâ€ and vehicles for reinforcing myths
Strategic brand models developed locally and cannot be applied globally.
Brand strength due to the meaning that a brand creates.
Brand in the mind of the consumer creates mindshare: how often consumers think about brand as a percentage of all times they think about all brand sin category
Means-end chain model: a conceptual structure linking a product (attributes) and a consumer (values)
This connection identified using laddering technique: method that helps explain consumer choices through the identification of the network of links among product attributes, consequences or benefits of these attributes, and consumersâ€™ values
Brand personality: defines brand as a human personality. Attribute human personality to brand to achieve differentiation.
Brand identity: the expression of the brand, including name and...