May 24, 2014
To: Mayor; Ms. Leona Graham
Hazard City Volcanic Assessment
Purpose: To evaluate the potential hazard and provide a report with analysis, conclusions, and recommendations to the city council.
Procedure: In this investigation I reviewed all the maps of the city, and all of the locations in-between Lava Mountain and the different types of hazards. As well as the damage that has done to each part of the city.
* What is the danger to the areas between Lava Mountain and the city? - Location 1:Thick layers of ash have been deeply eroded and some of the ash layers are up to 10 feet thick and are thicker here than at any other location around Lava Mountain. Location 2: This stream channel is choked with ash and tephra fragments up to one foot in diameter. Location 3: The ash layers are all less than 2 feet thick. Also found in ...view middle of the document...
Location 9: This location has thick soils, bedrock, and one thin ash fall.
* About which hazards do the various portions of Hazard City need to be concerned? –Hazard City needs to be concerned with Pyroclastic flows due to its high-density mixtures of hot, dry rock fragments and hot gases that erupted them at high speeds and destroys almost everything in its path. They should also be concerned with Lahars because it destroys by impact, blocks tributary streams, and buries communities.
* What actions might be taken in the near future to prevent some of the hazard potential? Include at least three recommendations. – 1. Forecasting eruptions, by monitoring: heat flow, magnetic properties of the rocks, ground water activity, land tilting or swelling, and gas emissions. 2. Evacuation. 3. Disrupting the flow of lava by cooling with water or digging diversion canals.
* Should the city institute a lahar-monitoring program? - The city should institute a lahar-monitoring program because location 4,5,6, and 7 all contain evidence of lahars and lahars can travel and can effect other cities in future eruptions.
* What elements need to be included in an emergency plan? - An emergency plan should include; knowing what to do in case of an earthquake, knowing where you could go if you need to evacuate, and have enough food and water for at least 3 days.
* Based on what you know about the behavior of Lava Mountain, is Hazard City near a plate boundary? If so, what type of boundary? –Yes, Hazard City is near a plate boundary. Specifically Convergent Boundaries.
Conclusion: I believe the reason so much damaged was caused to Hazard City was because of the types of hazard from the volcanoes that were being placed on the different locations. For future reference precautions should be taken to help prevent and/or lesson the harm from these volcanoes. The best precaution would be to monitor the volcanoes and the lahars through satellites. Also, by monitoring: heat flow, magnetic properties of the rocks, ground water activity, land tilting or swelling, and gas emissions.