ASSIGNMENT NO 2
UNIQUE NUMBER 578319
Give an overview of past, present and possible future concerns of development planning in the Third World by providing the following
A description and discussion of the focus of development planning since the 1940s
A discussion of either gender or globalization as a contemporary development problem that will influence development planning in years to come
TABLE OF CONTENCE
3 : INTRODUCTION
4 : DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING DEF
5: : HISTORICAL OF PLANNING IN THE THIRD WORLD
7 :THE CHANGING FOCUS OF DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
8 : WOMAN SHOULD TAKE PART IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
8 : CONCLUSION
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(Rogers and dwined et al)
Planning involves a choice between alternative policies plans and projects and also between alternative means and resources that will be used to realize and implement these project and objectives.
Public planning IS, for the most part, associated with guiding or directing societies, and it is generally undertaken by the state. What is involved here is systematic change within a social order either through the allocation of scarce resources allocated planning or through the introduction of institutional changes (innovative planning).Development planning includes both the process of policy making and the content of policy, before a county can plan for development, there must be a broad national development policy
HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PLANNING IN THE THIRD WORLD
Development owes its existence to the policies that were espoused in European countries during the 1940-1950. The purpose of those policies of which the marshal plan is a typical example, was to rebuild the war-ravaged economies of the western Europe and, maximize economic growth and the famous world bank was established during this time and as its full name (international Bank for Reconstruction and development) indicates, the emphasis was on reconstruction while development was a secondary consideration a consequent of reconstruction
Once the economies of European countries had been successfully restored by means of these policies (which were mainly of North American regime) bilateral and international aid organisations transferred their attention to the poor countries of the world. Due to communication and transport technology that had developed during the descend world war, the world became aware that there were countries that had not attained the level of prosperity European counters enjoyed, The less developed countries received considerable support from the more developed countries for their effort to solve their development problems and for their development planning, this support was not confined to financial and technical assistance, in many instances ,planning methods and techniques which had proved successful in more developed countries were passed on to less developed countries
It was believed that the salvation of the less developed countries lay in investment and capital intensive industries .the foreign exchange that was necessary for investment would be found by exporting national resources and raw materials (Ruddle & Rondinelli 1983:7)
In the 1950s and early 1960s development planning was in the third world was characterised by the emulation of imported models that we geared towards stimulation economic growth and it was expected that the effects of this type of growth would filter through to the poorest levels of the population. During those years, attempts were made to use macroeconomic planning to control development activities and to reduce the uncertainty that often accompanies development
However by the early...