According to Ammannati (2012) Genetically Modified Organisms are organisms whose genetic composition has been altered in order to suit some conditions. The undertaking is done through extensive research on specific organisms such as bacteria, insects, fish, plants as well as animals. The Genome of these organisms is altered to achieve production and or pharmaceutical goals. Although the field has had some criticisms over the years since its inception, it has proved to be very helpful in the production of food materials, experimental medicine and gene therapy, development of hybrid agricultural products such as hybrid ...view middle of the document...
The second scenario is that the DNA can be Transcribed and Translated simultaneously, therefore, leading to expression of the foreign DNA since translation triggers production of the Recombinant protein. Organisms possessing a recombinant gene will therefore exhibit normal phenotypic characteristics. The method is used by scientists to study the behavior and function of certain genes. A major application of this field of genetic engineering include Biotechnology, Medicine such as the production of Insulin (Delpeuch, 2009).The major application, however, is scientific research.
The second genetic engineering method, Reproductive cloning, involves the production of a genetic duplicate of a chosen living organism. It utilizes a technique called Somatic Cell Nucleus transfer. Nuclei obtained from these cells is cultured in a conducive medium to develop into an embryo that can be planted into a living organism’s uterus to develop into a replica of the organism. The other alternative is to put the resultant Clonal Embryo into a life-supporting machine where the development of the embryo is carefully monitored. The range of the organism that have been subjected to the kind of research include plants such as tomatoes, animals as the case of the popular Billy goat. The field has extended in the recent years to touch on human beings. This has produced many controversies on the ethical issues surrounding interfering with the genetic composition of human beings.
Surprisingly, Genetically Modified foods are very common today in retail shops as well as supermarkets. The safety precautions surrounding the consumption of such foods, however, lies on the consumer. Among the many products sold with genetically engineered contents include: whole grain cereals, Ketchup that contains Lycopene to act as an oxidant, Omega 3s in eggs, Soy, Food sweeteners, Canola oil, spreads as well as Sauces. Other GM products sold in supermarkets include groceries such as greens, Tomatoes and fruits. The fact that GMO foods are obtained from genetically modified plants rather than the normal plants makes the consumption of the latter be surrounded by multiple...