The article attempts to explore the work values in the hospitality context and analyze them further through the lens of generational differences on a multi dimensional level. What makes this research unique is the scope, which covers all 3 aspects: multiple dimensions of work values, importance of these work values to people across 3 generations and a focus on Hospitality industry.
The author’s approach is to find and shortlist research done on identification of work values, dimensions or factors under which they exist and the importance given to them based on the age of individuals (generation aspect). Post selection of a suitable research covering these criteria, the author attempts to ...view middle of the document...
Each value was attributed a different importance by individuals surveyed.
b) Research on Generational aspects: The author has approached generational variations to work values as per the classification of Smola and Sutton’s (2002).viz. ‘Baby boomers’ or those born between 1946 and 1964, ‘Generation Xers’ or those born between 1965 and 1977 and ‘Millennial’ or ‘Gen Y’ which represents those born after 1977.
c) Research on Multi dimensions: The author considered research methods adopted by Mok et al. (1998) Wong and Chung’s (2003) which identity underlying factors of dimensions to each work value. However, there is no reference in the article to why he did not choose one of them. The author arrived at the dimensions through factor analysis ‘Varimax Rotation’, and other statistical methods, post survey. One reason could be that both methods were done on Chinese applicants and the author used a sample base from US. And since dimensions are culturally influenced, he decided to keep these methods as reference only.
The assessment was made by administering a survey questionnaire which consisted of 45 statements covering 3 sections, viz. Organization behavior, socio demographic profile and work values. These 45 statements covered 15 work values. The questionnaire was sent to a sample size of 500 managers and supervisors in US, of which 398 responded. A response rate of 79 percent was enough to qualify as a valid sample base.
Observations post survey:
• Demographic Profile: The demographics covered a healthy cross section of samples across the following 4 parameters:
o Gender: 49.4 percent were Males and 50.6 percent females.
o Age & Generation Mix: Average age was 37.7, ranging from 20 to 59. Baby boomers (27%); Gen X (41%); Gen Y (32%)
o Years in Industry and Position: Average experience was 9.3yrs and Position mix was Executives (14%); Managers (31%); Owners (13%) & Supervisors (42%)
o Industry: Convention planning (13%); Food services (35%); Lodging (40%); Theme Park (12.6%)
o Baby Boomers ranked ‘Achievement’, ‘Way of life’ and ‘Altruism’ as their top 3 values
o Gen X & Gen Y reported common values as their top 3, although the order of ranking varied. These were ‘Way of life’, ‘achievement’, and ‘supervisory relationship’
o The least important values across the 3 generations were ‘aesthetics’, ‘associate’ and ‘management’.
o Post performing factor analysis of the 15 work values using various statistical tools, 4 underlying dimensions were arrived at.
o These are ‘comfort and security’, ‘personal growth’, ‘professional growth’ and ‘work environment’
o Each dimension covered 3-4 work values with common traits. Table IV in the article lists each factor under its relevant dimension.
o Frequency analysis of these dimensions revealed that ‘comfort and security’ ranked as most important to the sample population followed by ‘personal’ and then ‘professional growth’. ‘Work...