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General History Of Mexico Essay

5528 words - 23 pages

General History of Mexico

Mexico foundation starts in the year 900 B.C. with the migration of the Mexica from Aztlan tribe, towards the center of Mexico. When the Mexica tribe arrived, where now stands Mexico City, they found an eagle holding a serpent between its claws on a cactus. The Mexica thought this was a message from their god Huitzilopochtli (sun god) telling them that there was their sacred land.

Pre-Hispanic Cultures

Before the Mexica arrived to the center of Mexico and Central America, many pre-Hispanic cultures were developed, sharing their traditions and culture. 
When we talk about Mesoamerica, it refers to cultures that existed before the European conquest in the ...view middle of the document...

 Today in many churches you can find these symbols representing the pre-Hispanic gods.

Mexico has always been a land full of important resources such as gold and silver, resources used to build fabulous buildings and villages like San Cristobal, Guanajuato and San Miguel de Allende and others, during the time of the conquest by the Spanish. Today UNESCO has declared these villages World Heritage. Also, these resources were used to support the Spanish economy for almost 300 years, during which Spain became the largest empire ever. It was not until 1810 that Miguel Hidalgo started the independence movement in 1821 and finally Mexico declared its independence.

For the next 100 years, Mexico had many stability problems, suffered invasions from the U.S. and France, In addition there were many wars between liberals and conservatives.

The most damaging and dramatic invasion to Mexico was in 1847 when Charles de Santa Anna was forced to give the U.S. more than half of Mexican territory that today is made up of California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and much of Colorado states.

In 1861 Mexico for lack of resources, failed to pay to England, Spain and France an outstanding debt, in consequence the same year Napoleon III, Emperor of France, invaded Mexico establishing until 1867 "The Second Mexican Empire." It was not until 1867 that Benito Juarez (with financial support from United States) won the war and gains the French withdrawal. After Benito Juarez, Porfirio Diaz implemented a lasted 33 years dictatorship (1867-1910). During this period Mexico had a time of great growth, but with much inequality.

Mexico officially the United Mexican State, is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States of America; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers (over 760,000 sq. mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 112 million, it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city.

Politics

The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include...

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