Gender Stratification and Women in Developing Nations
University of Phoenix
January 9, 2011
Gender Stratification is basically is when gender is the only focus in social stratification. As far as gender stratification and women in developing nations women are not shown equal rights when it comes to employment, inheritance or technical knowledge. In this paper the basis of where this gender stratification began and why it continues will be discussed. Also the different nations such as Kenya, Sweden, Germany, Japan, China, ...view middle of the document...
Men run the cash crops, planting, harvesting and marketing whereas women are only limited to marketing surplus crops. Since 1983 some parts of Kenya have become modern but men still receive the most income and most of the land is owned by men because when lack the funds to obtain them. Even on farms that there is a male present woman can have access to loans but not if there is not a male living on the land with her. In Kenya the economic power is definitely not in the hands of women.
Now we will discuss Japan and how women are not advancing in their careers as fast as men. When women and men finish school and enter firms 22 percent of men and 7 percent of men reach the career ladder. Japan has what is called a permanent employment system which is firms whom the internal labor market structure hires employees upon graduation and they continue to move up the chain by seniority and merit. According to (International Labor Organization; 1986) 49 percent of Japanese women were in the labor force and in industrial economies women only make up 36 percent of paid workers in relation to men. In comparison to other nations Japan has the widest gap in proportion of men and women who work. As time goes on the level of women working has increased but still not close to the level of men. Before the Employment Opportunity Law was passed in 1985, employers would commonly ask women if they were going to quit their jobs when they got married or have children. Employers in Japan like to hire people that will be with them for a long time and utilize the training they receive. They believe women are high risk and may not have longevity when it comes to the job; it is also looked as a savings for the company. Even with a university education it still does not guarantee a woman a position in a larger firm. When it comes to Japans employee labor force the wage gap is great between men and women and the women in managerial ranks are very low. There are clearly strong gender stratification problems early on in the career life in Japan.
Sweden and West Germany women experience gender stratification as well, but marriage actually improves their upward mobility chances. Swedish and German women tend to inherit the parental class positions thorough work status and not marriage. In Sweden women have more chance for upward mobility through marriage than men do from work, meaning marriage helps them more than hurts them. In Israel women especially minority women are limited when it comes to school leadership positions among other things. Being a woman and a minority puts you at a double disadvantage from the start and the woman is doomed before even trying to succeed. It has been found by (Doughty 1980) that African American woman tend to be at the bottom when it comes to school administrative hierarchy, but first is the white male, then the black male and then the white female. The only way an African American or Hispanic woman could be appointed as school...