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Gender Note Essay

960 words - 4 pages

Presented By: Ronia Chaukura, James Tembo and Jealous Nyamakuti

Topic: Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these 3 approaches to development:

a) WID (Women In Development)

b) WAD (Women and Development)

c) GAD (Gender and Development)


By the end of this presentation students should be able to:

a. Define the 3 approaches WID, WAD, and GAD

b. Understand the weakness and strengths of the approaches.

c. Highlight one relevant approach to the Zimbabwean situation.


There are three main approaches to the development of women namely WID, WAD and GAD. The struggle for women to get recognition in society was evident before ...view middle of the document...


WID (Women in Development)
The term women in development came into use in 1970s after the publication of Ester Boserup’s women’s role in economic development. WID has a western origin and it began with the Liberal Feminist. The term WID was initially used by the women’s committee of Washington D.C. chapter of the society for international development in bringing the evidence generated by Boserup and others to the attention of American policy makers (Maguire: 1984).

- Effectively integrated women into mainstream development projects and programmes in order to achieve more efficient and effective national development.
- Increases women’s productivity
- Increases women’s income by self employment.
- WID focuses on ensuring women get into mainstream development. The result in overburdening of women as they were still expected to fulfil their home responsibilities such as provision of food, clothing and shelter etc. (ILO:1976)
- It is overall narrow and tends to ignore men in explicitly influencing the participation of women in development.
This is a feminist approach which has its roots in the neo Marxists of dependant’s theory. It focuses on women only and grew out of discontent with WID approach because of its failure to pay attention to structural factor which caused women’s subordination and women’s exploitation.
- WAD recognises and focuses strongly on class, but in practical project design and implementation terms, it tend, like WID, to group women together without taking note of class, race, ethnicity divisions, all of which may exercise powerful influence on actual social status.
- WAD does not give detailed attention to the overriding influence of the ideology of patriarchy; women’s condition is seen primarily within the structure of international and class inequalities.
- Secondly WID and WAD is a singular preoccupation with the productive sector at the expense of the reproductive side of women’s work and lives. Hence, like WID, WAD concentrate on income generating activities without taking...

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