In music, relative keys are the major and minor scales that have the same key signatures. A major and minor scale sharing the same key signature are said to be in a relative relationship. The relative minor of a particular major key, or the relative major of a minor key, is the key which has the same key signature but a different tonic; this is as opposed to parallel minor or major, which shares the same tonic. Relative keys are closely related keys, the keys between which most modulations occur, in that they differ by no more than one accidental (none in the case of relative keys)
The minor key starts three semitones below its relative major; for example, A ...view middle of the document...
Perfect cadences sound as though the music has come to an end. A perfect cadence is formed by the chords V - I.
Interrupted cadences are 'surprise' cadences. You think you're going to hear a perfect cadence, but you get a minor chord instead.
Imperfect cadences sound unfinished. They sound as though they want to carry on to complete the music properly. An imperfect cadence ends on chord V.
Plagal cadences sound finished. Plagal cadences are often used at the end of hymns and sung to A-men. A plagal cadence is formed by the chords IV - I.
The character of a piece of music is related to its key centre or tonality.
Tonal music is in a major or minor key.
Atonal music is not related to a tonic note and therefore has no sense of key.
Modal music is in a mode. A mode is a seven-note scale.
When a piece of music changes key it is said to modulate. It is most likely to modulate to a closely related key.
The three most closely related keys to the tonic are the dominant, the subdominant or the relative minor or major keys.
A musical phrase is like a spoken sentence. You can almost hear a 'breath' at the end of the phrase, even when the music is played by non-wind instruments.
Here are some examples of different types of ascending scale:
* Major scale
* Minor scale
* Pentatonic scale
* Chromatic scale
* Whole tone scale
A musical device is a technique for achieving a particular artistic effect.
Riff, ostinato and loop:
These three words mean the same thing. 'Ostinato' is more often used when describing classical music. 'Riff' is more often used when describing pop music and 'loop' is used in contemporary dance music.
A riff, ostinato or loop is a repeated pattern of notes.
Hooks, fills and breaks:
* A hook is a short catchy melodic idea designed to be instantly memorable.
* A fill is a short flourish used to fill a gap between phrases and is often played on drums.
* A break is an extended instrumental section in dance music or a solo in pop and jazz, usually improvised.