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Gas Turbine Lab Essay

613 words - 3 pages

Objective
The primary objective of this experiment is to gain a better understanding of how gas turbines operates, and the parameters which influence their efficiency.

Theory

Apparatus
The Gunt ET972 Small Gas Turbine Demonstration Unit is an educational instrument, designed with ergonomics in mind, and is equipped with a number of displays to convey performance information. Propane is used as the fuel. As small size and a range of options are required in an educational setting, efficiency is not a priority and hence suffers as the unit is optimised for practicality rather than power output.
Gas turbines are effectively vibration free as there is no reciprocal motion as in a piston engine, have a very high power to weight ratio, and when coupled to an electrical generator, are used to account for unexpected rises in power electricity demand.

Schematic diagram on the front side of the ...view middle of the document...

0166 | |
Turbine Inlet, T3 [°C] | 769 | 793 | 808 | 820 | 840 | |
Turbine Inlet, P3 [Bar] | 0.56 | 0.63 | 0.73 | 0.8 | 0.9 | |
Power Turbine Inlet,T4 [°C] | 636 | 637 | 642 | 651 | 662 | |
Power Turbine Inlet, P4 [mBarrel] | 100 | 100 | 115 | 126 | 152 | |
Power Turbine Outlet, T5 [°C] | 582 | 588 | 593 | 602 | 613 | |
Air Flow In [dm3/s] | 70.2 | 72.5 | 84 | 88.5 | 93.1 | |
Gas Flow Rate [kg/h] | 4.5 | 4.75 | 5.1 | 5.3 | 5.6 | |
Speed, N1 [RPM] | 89.6 | 94.6 | 100.5 | 104.8 | 110 | |
Speed, N2 [RPM] | 15 | 15.1 | 15 | 15.1 | 15.15 | |
Electrical Power, Pelec [E] | 561 | 747 | 918 | 1050 | 1225 | |
Oil Temperature, Toil [°C] | 60 | 62.2 | 68.1 | 71 | 72.6 | |

Calculated Results

  | | | | | | |
  | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | |
P2 [BarA] | 1.561 | 1.6294 | 1.7284 | 1.7976 | 1.8964 | |
π [P2/P1] | 1.540967 | 1.60849 | 1.706219 | 1.774531 | 1.872063 | |
ṀL | 0.080779 | 0.083126 | 0.0965 | 0.101537 | 0.106536 | |
Pte [W] | 758.1081 | 1009.459 | 1240.541 | 1418.919 | 1655.405 | |
Ptred [W] | 755.0056 | 1005.328 | 1235.464 | 1413.112 | 1648.631 | |
be [kg/kWh] | 5.960221 | 4.724825 | 4.128005 | 3.750587 | 3.396758 | |
ηe | 0.013026 | 0.016432 | 0.018808 | 0.0207 | 0.022857 | |
ηth | 0.116219 | 0.126982 | 0.141571 | 0.151146 | 0.164023 | |
λ | 4.243138 | 4.136614 | 4.47261 | 4.528471 | 4.496894 | |

The above table or results was calculated in Microsoft Office Excel, and utilised the value input on the previous page. A sample calculation(next page), details the method implemented in Excel.

Sample Calculation

Charts
The compressor map is an essential tool in predicting the performance, efficiency and optimum operating conditions of gas turbines.

Conclusion
Examining the compressor map, it is clear that that thermal efficiency (ηth) of the Gas Turbine increases with speed. Across the range measured, the relationship was approximately linear, with a maximum thermal efficiency of approximately 16.5%. Although this is extremely low, efficiency is not a primary concern in this operating environment, and the turbine is only representative of an actual system.

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