Ganga Action Plan
Area of activity
How does it influence the govt
Methods they use
How far have they been successful?
Is the influence healthy?
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement.
Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support ...view middle of the document...
Much of the early campaign was focused on transparency from the government and World Bank. NBA employed peaceful marches, protests, and large-scale hunger fasts. They also campaigned against paying taxes and denied government officials entry into villages.
. These activities have had three overlapping aims: first, to call for rehabilitation work to take place at the same time as the raising of the dam as ordered by the Supreme Court; second, to demand the termination of the project altogether; and third, to protest the series of Supreme Court orders declining to suspend construction. The struggle of the NBA has also fired the imagination of some of India’s most prominent citizens who have, along the way, acted as the voice of the movement.
How influence govt.
NBA resistance operated at local, national, and international scales, redefining the terms of development, democracy, and accountability.
The success of the NBA campaign resulted from its innovative strategies of resistance that operated simultaneously at the grassroots, national, and international level. As such, the campaign’s significance as a social movement extends far beyond India’s national borders.
The NBA has continued to engage in various forms of direct action even as it pursued its legal remedies. While the case stagnated in the Court system, NBA activists organized and participated in public meetings, rallies, marches, demonstrations, fasts, dharnas, and satyagrahas
While the NBA originally employed ‘‘Gandhian methods’’ such as peaceful marches and protests,after a high-profile hunger fast in 1991 failed, the NBA announced a ‘‘noncooperation movement’’ in the Narmada valley. This movement campaigned against the payment of taxes and sought to deny entry to the villages to all government officials, except teachers and doctors. The NBA subsequently began to consider litigation as an additional option for a variety of reasons. Their tactics up to this point had frequently drawn violent reactions from the government. In addition, other disadvantaged groups had successfully moved the Supreme Court, inspiring the NBA to do the same.
How far successful
With mounting pressure from NBA, other citizen activists, and international NGOs and Economic Funds, the Indian government soon canceled the remaining loans knowing that it could not meet the Bank's guidelines, thus ending support from the World Bank for the Sardar Sarovar dam. The controversy led to the creation of the World Bank Inspection Panel in 1993. “It was a milestone for the human rights movement and the first mechanism established to enable local groups to challenge World Bank projects” (Narula).
In the 1970s, an organized resistance to the destruction of forests spread throughout India and came to be known as the Chipko movement. The name of the movement comes from the word 'embrace', as the villagers hugged the trees, and prevented the contractors' from felling them.