The Fundamentals of Decision-Making
In this paper I am addressing the fundamentals of decision making.
According to Dunn programmed decision are decisions that have been made so many times in the past that managers have developed rules or guideline to be applied when certain situations are expected to occur. Programmed decisions making are a routine that you make every time so that the organization run smooth. Managers can develop rules and guidelines to regulate all routine organizational activities. Most decisions are related to daily activities. It is a not a routine decision making . This means it is made for big decisions that will affect ...view middle of the document...
4. Evaluate the alternatives--I tend to determine the pros and cons of each alternative
then I select the best alternative that carries the lowest costs to the organization.
5. Take action, and follow up--everyone must know their role in ensuring a successful
outcome, if something doesn’t go well one of the other alternatives generated in the
decision-making process may be a wiser choice.
The differences between coordination, cooperation, and collaboration is that cooperation refers to the willingness of individuals to help each other. Coordination is more than mere willingness. Coordination is formal; meaning that its the process in which involve planning, and defining roles and relationships. Lastly, collaboration refers to working with individuals to achieve a goal or solve a solution.
Challenges of effective coordination can occur when your colleagues may be unwilling to get involved in coordination efforts if they think it will involve a series of long, unproductive meetings or if it involves too much work. Some benefits of effective coordination are sharing information and learning lessons from the experiences of others.
Coordination occurs vertically, horizontally, and diagonally. Vertical coordination relies on authority and it occurs between different levels of an organization. Meanwhile, one can say that vertical coordination can be better accomplished if management uses wisdom and insights when performing the functions of planning, organizing, staffing, influencing, and controlling.
Horizontal coordination involves personnel and departments on the same level, working together to achieve a particular goal. Problems may arise when horizontal coordination is carried out because one department does not ordinarily have the authority to direct another department. Horizontal coordination is usually mandated by policies and procedures. Issues regarding horizontal coordination should be referred to higher management. Diagonal coordination is important because various departments may depend on a particular department to achieve a specific goal.
The formal channel is the formal path through which information flows. The formal channel utilizes downward, upward, horizontal, and diagonal communication to send information through the organizational hierarchy. Supervisors, for example, use downward channels to send messages to subordinates. The...