Friedrich Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, using a distinctive German language style.
His key ideas include interpreting tragedy as an affirmation of life, an eternal recurrence that has become subject to numerous interpretations, a rejection of Platonism, and a denial of Christianity. Nietzsche tore down the foundations of metaphysics and philosophy, proclaimed 'God is Dead' but did not offer us any positive alternatives.
His history and life:
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From Schopenhauer Nietzsche concluded that life makes no objective, absolute sense. Nietzsche disagreed with Scopenhauer, who considered that the will is the will to live, and insisted that life is governed by the will to power.
At the age of 24 he became the Chair of Classical Philology, at the University of Basel, the youngest ever holder of this position, but resigned in 1879 due to health problems, which would plague him for most of his life. In 1889 he exhibited symptoms of a serious mental illness, living out his remaining years in the care of his mother and sister until his death in 1900.
According to Nietzsche,the sense of joy and vitality that accompanies the superior individual’s clear-sighted imposition of his own freely chosen values on a meaningless world.
Out of the most important writings of Nietzsche are: The death of God, nihilism, and perspectivism, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, mortality (master-slave morality), overman, eternal recurrence…
The above was a crisis unrecognized by the secular-minded people of Nietzsche's day, and it was to both clarify and to overcome it that Nietzsche wrote Thus Spoke Zarathustra and introduced the concept of a value-creating Übermensch.
He came to see himself the prophet of a higher healthier morality, a morality that required the revaluation of all values. He took to referring himself as an immoralist and an iconolast. Nietzsche’s purpose was to destroy conventional morality and replace it with a higher “immoral” ideal. Zarathustra announces the arrival of the arrival of the next evolutionary type: the overman and the death of God and of merely human being.
The death of God, nihilism, and perspectivism
The statement "God is dead," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works, has probably become the single most-quoted line in all of Nietzsche's texts. In Nietzsche's view, recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively "killed" the Christian God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for the previous thousand years. Authentic faith is not possible anymore. Life is only a cosmic accident, there is no divine or rational goal and so people have only Zarathustra law tablet. For him mere-man without God have no absolute identity so this creates an under man that have slave morality, a value system based on guilt, fear, distortion, humility, passivity, dependency and in which love of domination and fearlessness are condemned as arrogance.
Nietzsche claimed the "death of God" would...