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Foundations Of Psychology Essay

841 words - 4 pages

Foundations of Psychology
Robert Irvine
November 29, 2010
Robert J. Martinez

Foundations of Psychology
Psychology and all its complex schools of thoughts, developed by numerous individuals involved in breaking down the human mind and how it functions and operates, will be explained in this paper. Along with the schools of thought, and their underlying assumptions, this paper will also attempt to identify the primary foundations of psychology, and how they are linked to behavior.
Edward Titchener initiated his own school of thought known as structuralism. A student of Wilhelm Wundt, often described as “the father of psychology,” Titchener adopted the use of Wundt’s ...view middle of the document...

Behaviorism, emphasizing the relation between external events and observable events, focuses on the way events or objects come to control behavior in an environment. John Watson and B.F. Skinner, believed that there was “no place in a scientific analysis of behavior for a mind or self.” Psychology is the science of behavior, and therefore the proper procedures for conducting proper psychological research should be the same for other sciences, rigorous application of scientific method, especially experimentation, according to behaviorists. Psychologists cannot study conscious thoughts in a specific way, due to the fact that here is no access to them, except from the person reporting them, says behaviorists.
Psychoanalysis, a theory of mental life and behavior, developed by Viennese physician, Sigmund Freud, rests on three key premises. First, the actions of people are determined by how thoughts, feelings and wishes are connected in their minds. Second, many of these events occur outside the conscious state of awareness. And third, these processes may cause conflict with each other, prompting compromise among motives that compete. Therefore the precise chain of events that lead to conscious thoughts, intentions, feelings and behaviors are unknown. Freud and colleagues, as we will see, failed to use scientific method to test their theories and refine their hypotheses. Freud, in response to patients symptoms, although real, were not based on physiological malfunction of any kind, originated his theory. Freud stated, a deceptively simple deduction, that if the symptoms were not consciously created and maintained, with no physical basis, their basis must be unconscious. He also argued they...

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