September 2, 2011
Foundations of Psychology Paper
In the foundations of psychology there are four major schools of thought that make up the foundation. The four schools of thoughts are Evolutionary, Psychodynamic, Cognitive and Behavioral, along with the biological foundations and biopsychology. Each different in their own way with different theorists that have either came up with one of the school of thoughts or are just continuing in someone else's footsteps.
Sigmund Freud originated his theory in response to ...view middle of the document...
The more they use the experimental methods the more it should alleviate some criticism that has been leveled against psychodynamic theorist for using unreliable measures and approaches (Kowalski and Weston, 2005).
In his famous experiments Pavlov paired presentations to dogs of an unconditioned stimulus (food) with an initially neutral stimulus (a ringing bell). After a number of such joint presentations, the unconditional response to food (salivation) becomes conditioned to the bell: salivation occurs upon the ringing of the bell alone, in the absence of food. In accord with Pavlovian theory, then, given an animal’s conditioning history behavioral responses (e.g., salivation) can be predicted to occur or not, and be controlled (made to occur or not), on the basis of laws of conditioning (Hauser, 2005). This experiment falls in the behaviorist school of thought, which focuses on the way environmental events controls our behavior, which was a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner procedural, aspects as well. Pavlov wasn't the only theorist in this school of thought; there was also John B. Watson, who in 1912 manifesto proposed abandoning introspection’s attempts to make consciousness a subject of experimental investigation to focus instead on behavioral manifestations of intelligence (Hauser, 2005). Behaviorism primarily an experimental method that entails forming or framing a hypothesis about how certain environmental events effect behavior and then creating a lab to study or “test” the hypothesis formed.
Although behaviorism was the dominant perspective in psychology from the 1920s to the 1960s, but over the last 30 years psychology has undergone a “cognitive revolution” (Kowalski and Weston, 2005). René Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy.” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Second, he wanted to replace their final causal model of scientific explanation with the more modern, mechanistic model (Skirry, 2008). This would be the cognitive school of thought approach which focuses on the way we perceive, process and retrieve information, Descartes attempted to address the issue through his method of doubt using the strategy to consider false, any belief that...