Fertility, Morbidity, And Mortality Essay

966 words - 4 pages

Today, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates are examined separately because most deaths during the neonatal period are associated with events surrounding the prenatal period and delivery. Post-neonatal mortality deaths are more likely to be associated with conditions or events that arise after the delivery. Deaths from birth defects can occur in both neonatal and post-neonatal stages.
For the past several decades, neonatal mortality in the United States has been declining at a faster rate that post-neonatal. Neonatal deaths accounts for the majority of infant deaths. The decline in neonatal deaths has mainly been due to the improvements of hospital settings, advances in medical ...view middle of the document...

7 deaths per 1,000 live births. The higher level of neonatal infant deaths occurred due to sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory diseases, and complication from premature birth deaths. Post-neonatal deaths were primarily caused by accidents and environmental hazards.
Hispanic neonatal deaths were estimated at 3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births. Post-neonatal deaths were reported at 1.7 per 1,000 live births. Neonatal deaths among Hispanics were caused from premature births, maternal complications, respiratory and cardiac diseases. Post-neonatal deaths were contributed to environmental hazards, accidents, and infections.
The leading causes of infant death haven't changed in the last several years, despite advanced technology and increased focus on prenatal care. While most people would expect the rate of infant death to be decreasing rapidly, it has actually remained pretty stable since 2000. The overall rate of infant mortality in the United States is 6.86 deaths per 1,000 births. This data from the CDC's (Center for Disease Control) National Center for Health Statistics is based on the latest statistics available from 2006.
Birth weight has been well recognized as a cause of neonatal mortality among all ethnic groups. Causes of low birth weight have been attributed to risk factors such as: carrying more than one baby, smoking or exposure to second hand smoke, stress, infections, and previous abortions.
Congenital defects, also known as birth defects, are problems that occur while a fetus is developing in the womb. Congenital defects can affect the way the body looks or functions and range from mild to severe. Some defects, such as cleft lip or palate, can be easily fixed or treated. Other congenital defects may need life-long treatment to manage such as Down syndrome and heart defects. The most severe congenital defects prove fatal and lead to infant death. In 2006, 5,571 infants died as a result of congenital defects (Centers for Disease Control 2006).
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