1. Madison says that “complaints are everywhere heard from our most considerate and virtuous citizens”—what are these complaints that people make.
a. “…that our governments are too unstable, that the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties, and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.”
2. Are these complaints valid in Madison’s view?
a. Yes, even though he wished that they were not true, he couldn’t deny the facts that showed all of these complaints to be true.
3. What is Madison’s definition of a faction?
a. Groups ...view middle of the document...
8. Madison writes “extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests.” How does having a variety of interests benefit the republic?
a. “You make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Besides other impediments, it may be remarked that, where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable purposes, communication is always checked by distrust in proportion to the number whose concurrence is necessary.”
1. Madison says that the key is that “each department should have a will of its own”—how is it possible to ensure the independence of each department?
a. “it would require that all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people, through channels having no communication whatever with one another.”
2. What does Madison rely on to prevent one branch of government from encroaching on another…virtue or ambition? What does this imply about the founders’ view of human nature?