Anti-Depressant Drugs and FDA Approval
Anti-Depressant Drugs and FDA Approval Procedure
Pima Community College Psych 101
Antidepressant drugs fall under three main categories; MOAI’s, Tricyclic Antidepressants, and SSRI’s. Like any drug, Antidepressant drugs must get FDA approval prior to putting in on the market for society, ensuring it has no harmful effects. The Food and Drug Association has a series of trials, tests, and procedures, to ensure these drugs are safe and effective for people with severe depression.
Effects of each Type of Antidepressant Drugs
Anti-Depression drugs target the amygdala by directly by increasing the activity in the ...view middle of the document...
The first one is a nonselective, systematic, and irreversible; it includes tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), and isocarboxazid (Marplan). This group of enzymes is known as nonselective because it targets both MAO-A and MAO-B. It is known as irreversible, because they bind the enzyme so strongly, a person would still feel the side effects up to three weeks after stopping the drug. The second group is more
selective when inhibiting. MAO-A inhibitor includes moclobemide (aurorix, Manerix) and brofaromine (Consonar) and are known as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A. MAO-B inhibitor is not normally used for depression, rather for Parkinson’s disease. Lower dosages of drugs like selegiline (Eldepryl) and rasagiline (Azilect), have proven to be a good treatment for symptoms of Parkinson’s, because they block the MAO that breaks down the dopamine leaving them with increased levels of dopamine. (Willingham, E. J. 2012, p.1001).
Tricyclic anti-depressants are named after their three ring molecular structure. These cycles release themselves into the synaptic vesicles of the neuron, as a result, the serotonin and norepinephrins’ activity level goes up. The chemicals released will enhance ones mood, however these drugs do effect other chemicals in the body, causing unwanted side effects. Drugs that include this tricyclic molecular structure include; amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Sinequan), imipramine (Tofranil), nortrptyline (Pamelor), protriptyline (Vivactil), and trimpramine (Surmontil). Every drug is a little different in each way, and is specifically chosen based on the individual, then prescribed by a medical doctor. It is extremely important to follow the recommended dosage amount, many factors such as weight, age, symptoms, and general health is taken into consideration when prescribed. (Ross-Flanigan, N., & Davidson, T., 2011 p.208).
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
SSRI is a product of the effects of the MAOI’s, as well as the molecular structure of the tricyclic antidepressants, and affects the CNS (Central Nervous System). Their purpose is to increase the activity of a chemical known as serotonin. Serotonin is a type of neurotransmitter which sends messages from the brain to the nerves. These neurotransmitters prevent the brains receptors from soaking up the serotonin, as a result, the blocking of the serotonin reuptake. Causing increased levels of serotonin in the brain. The first SSRI drug was sold in the United States in 1987, and is called Fluoxetine, more commonly known as Prozac. Other drugs commonly used today are citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluvoxamine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft). (Stacy, K. M. 2012, p. 1353)
Overview of Drug Approval Process
The FDA is responsible for ensuring the safety and efficiency of vaccines, biologic products, cosmetics, dietary supplements, food, medical devices, and prescription drugs. In order to start...