Fallacy Summary and Application Paper
Logical Fallacies are methods in argumentations or persuasions that may look or sound good and truthful but do not stand up to critical analysis. These are errors of reasoning that may be recognized by prudent thinkers (Downes, 1995). Fallacies are more than just mistaken belief, it is a flaw in argument that may be intentionally created by a person who has an agenda or may be due to a simple error. On the other hand, Fischer (1970; p. 306) in contrast with fallacy explains logic as follows: “Logic is not everything. But it is something something which can be taught, something which can be learned, something which can help us in some ...view middle of the document...
This paper discusses three logical fallacies: appeal to emotion, red herring and hasty generalization and how they are applied in particular organizations or business.
Appeal to Emotion
Appeal to Emotion fallacy is committed when a person tries to manipulate other’s emotions into acceptance of a claim as being true (Labossiere, 1995). This fallacy is very common in the field of modern advertising. There are commercials that aim to evoke emotion to influence people into deciding and taking an action on buying the presented product. Marketing companies consider this type of advertising an extremely effective tool as people’s emotions are often observed to carry more force than their reason. The employment of strategies in inspiring emotions is an important skill in a sense that without an appeal to people’s emotion one may find it doubly hard to convince others into taking action or into performing at their best. What is important here is for a person to discern between what inspires emotions and what justifies a claim. With discernment, one is unlikely to fall prey to this fallacy. A person has to be rational for they may succumb to emotional appeals and may fail to see the justification to the claim. This may lead to faulty judgment and poor decision-making. In other words, one has to be aware that this kind of fallacy exists in advertising; as such he has to be wise not to fall into marketing traps. Think before buying!
Hasty generalization is a kind of fallacy whereby a person draws generalization regarding a population based only on an insufficient sample or a sample that is not large enough (Downes, 1995). It is generally known that small samples tend to be inconclusive and unrepresentative and are less likely to contain numbers that are proportional to the whole population. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to have samples that are large enough to justify the conclusion. In the case where the kind of population in question was not of a very diverse nature, then a small sample would be enough to become the basis for generalization. However, if the population in question was very diverse then there is a necessity for a fairly large sample. Moreover, in terms of size, the size of the sample has its basis on the size of the population.
A Hasty Generalization can be true but it might not be reliable, because it’s reasoning is fallacious, and as long as this is so, there is no justification to accept the conclusion. People often make a mistake of committing hasty generalizations due to bias or prejudice and laziness or sloppiness. People usually find it easy to simply leap into a particular conclusion than to find or gather adequate data and draw from the data a justified conclusion. Hence, to avoid fallacy, one has to minimize the influence of bias and take care to obtain a sample large enough to make the conclusion reliable.
A common example of this fallacy that everyone might have probably experienced...