This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Fallacies Essay

1267 words - 6 pages

U.S. Diversity
Danielle Lake
Basic Fallacies

Hurley, Patrick J. A Concise Introduction to Logic, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2006.

Fallacy
• A defect in an argument that is not simply a false premise (false information).
• Mistake in reasoning
• Creation of an illusion that makes the argument appear stronger than it is

Formal Fallacies
• Identifiable by examining the FORM of the argument alone
• No need to examine the content (examine the actual truth of the premises)
• EX. All cats are mammals. Form: All A are B.
All dogs are mammals. All C are B.
Therefore, All cats are dogs All A are C.

Informal Fallacies
• Detectable by ...view middle of the document...

Appeal to the People
• Uses everyone’s wish to belong, appeals to things we want (love, admiration, value) to get the listener to accept a conclusion.
• This can take place at a rally or (2) be directed at a single person by appealing to her wish to belong or be admired.

Argument against the Person
• Two arguers, one person advances a particular argument and the other tries to refute the argument by actually refuting the person or the circumstances the person is in
• They can do this by either verbally abusing the person, appealing to her circumstances, or noting that her argument is hypocritical
• The purpose of this argument is to discredit the opponent in order to discredit the argument

Accident
• This fallacy happens when a general rule is applied to a particular situation that doesn’t fall under the rule
• Contains accidental feature that makes it an exception to the rule it is trying to be applied to

Straw Man
• Arguer distorts an opponent’s argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it
• He then demolishes the distorted argument and concludes that the real argument has been torn apart

Missing the Point
• The premises of an argument support one particular conclusion, but a different conclusion from that one is drawn
• The different conclusion is vaguely related to the real one
• If you suspect this fallacy is being committed you should be able to identify the real conclusion
• EX. Crimes of theft and robbery have been increasing at an alarming rate lately. The conclusion is obvious: we must reinstate the death penalty immediately.

Red Herring
• Arguer diverts the attention of the reader or listener by changing the subject to a different, related subject, then finishes by drawing a conclusion from this changed subject or presuming one to be drawn

Appeal to Unqualified Authority
• Occurs when the cited authority or witness lacks credibility
• Reasons for lacking credibility: lack expertise, biased or prejudice, motive to lie or disseminate, lack ability to perceive or recall events

Appeal to Ignorance
• When the premises say that nothing can be proved one way or another, but then the arguer still makes a conclusion about the thing
• Usually involved something that is not provable (God)
• EXCEPTIONS: if qualified people do research and turn up no evidence about a phenomenon, then it counts as positive evidence against the phenomenon existing. In a courtroom a person is presumed innocent until proven guilty. So, there is a positive assumption without positive support.

Hasty Generalization
• Occurs when there is a reasonable likelihood that the sample is not representative of the generalization that the arguer is trying to make (too small or not randomly selected)

False Cause
• Link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined causal...

Other Papers Like Fallacies

Business Fallacies Essay

842 words - 4 pages Fallacies Assignment BCOM/275 Two wrongs make a right is a type of fallacy when one person does something wrong to another, and the recipient, in turn, does something equally wrong back to the original deliverer. In doing so, the recipient doing the second wrong, believe they are justified in doing so because they are getting even or, making the situation right in their own mind. Obviously, in the end, this doesn't make anything right

Crt 205 Fallacies Essay

394 words - 2 pages Identifying Fallacies CRT 205 Identifying Fallacies 2. This is an example of an ad hominem fallacy, the author attacks Andrea Keene, and therefore the claim is false. This could also be an example of Straw Man fallacy, while the effects of fertility drugs are not exaggerated, suggesting that one or more of the infants dies “agonizingly” every time is exaggerated. 3. Straw Man fallacy, this is where the author distorts and exaggerates the

Logical Fallacies: Summary And Application

1023 words - 5 pages Logical fallacies can be employed several ways. Politicians engage in sophisticated campaigns engaging in verbal banter. Many variations of logical fallacies can be identified during political campaigns, because people are expecting to be verbally seduced in this manner. To recognize the use of fallacies requires critical thinking skills to sort out the facts, followed by making a decision based on those facts. Recognition of a logical fallacy

Many Types Of Logical Fallacies

1375 words - 6 pages Some of the many types of Logical Fallacies .American Intercontinental University PHIL 201- 1401B-02 Week 3 Individual Assignment Introduction: Logical Fallacy: A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning. In other words, it is a factual error or a failure to logically support the conclusion in an argument. An argument is a group of statements about a specific topic where a stand is taken applying premises needed to support their

The Logical Fallacies Of Descartes’ Meditations On First Philosophy

2361 words - 10 pages The Logical Fallacies of Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy includes a proof for the existence of material objects, such as trees. Descartes accomplishes this by first doubting all things, from which he learns that he can be certain of nothing but his own existence as a thinking thing. From this established certainty, Descartes is able to provide proof for the existence of God, and

Fallacies of Internet Censorship

1156 words - 5 pages Laws, enforcements, and censorship have been developed since the beginning of civilization. With freedom, comes responsibility, and with responsibility comes common sense. In a society or nation of few, laws and restriction tend to be smaller, and less complex. This is contributed by the fact that in small groups, their will be less diversity amongst them. In larger society ranging in millions to billions, the need for a more complex

Identify the Logical Fallacies

569 words - 3 pages Free Speech- is it really free? Freedom of speech, is it really free? My answer is no! According to The Constitutional Amendments (US Constitution-Bill of rights, 1791); The first amendment states that; “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging The Freedom of Speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and petition the government for

Fallacy Summary And Application

921 words - 4 pages Abstract An argument is fallacious when it contains one or more logical fallacies. A logical fallacy is an argument that contains a mistake in reasoning (2002). When using critical thinking to make decisions, an individual or group needs to be aware of logical fallacies and how they relate to decision-making. Logical fallacies can be used to manipulate a situation and if a person or group does not recognize logical fallacies, the person or

Fallacy Summary And Application

1100 words - 5 pages Fallacy Summary and Application Abstract Throughout this paper, we will discuss the relative meanings of fallacies and the importance they have in regards to critical thinking and the decision-making processes. Within the process of critical thinking, fallacies tend to play a very large part of this process. By definition, a fallacy is a statement or an argument based on a false or invalid reference (American Heritage Dictionary of the

Fallacy Summary and Application Paper

1599 words - 7 pages Fallacy Summary and Application Paper Introduction Logical Fallacies are methods in argumentations or persuasions that may look or sound good and truthful but do not stand up to critical analysis. These are errors of reasoning that may be recognized by prudent thinkers (Downes, 1995). Fallacies are more than just mistaken belief, it is a flaw in argument that may be intentionally created by a person who has an agenda or may be due to a simple

Fallacy and Its Types

1387 words - 6 pages violation of one of the criteria of a good argument- structural, relevance, acceptability, sufficiency, and rebuttal criterion, which means that fallacies are flaws in arguments that stem from one or more of the following: A structural flaw in the argument The Structural Principle The first criterion of a good argument requires that one who argues for or against a position should use an argument that meets the fundamental structural requirements

Related Essays

Fallacies Essay

538 words - 3 pages Appendix C Categorizing Fallacies Categorize each fallacy statement by copying and pasting it into the text box adjacent to its matching fallacy type. Fallacy Statements |Fallacy Type |Fallacy Statement | |Ad hominem/genetic |3. From a study group member: “I just don’t get it. One minute she says she’s coming, and

Logical Fallacies Essay

896 words - 4 pages Logical Fallacies Fallacies are all around us. We see fallacies on the television, newspapers, and radio. People around the world experience logical fallacies on almost a daily basis. A fallacy is defined as “errors or flaws in reasoning” (Axelrod and Cooper 620).Fallacies used in advertisements are; band wagon, begging the question, confusing chronology with casualty, either-or reasoning, equivocating, failing to accept the burden of

Logical Fallacies Essay

1180 words - 5 pages Logical Fallacies Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. • o Slippery Slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then

Identifying Fallacies Essay

779 words - 4 pages CheckPoint: Identifying Fallacies 2. Letter to the editor: “Andrea Keene’s selective morality is once again showing through in her July 15 letter. This time she expresses her abhorrence of abortion. But how we see only what we choose to see! I wonder if any of the anti-abortionists have considered the widespread use of fertility drugs as the moral equivalent of abortion, and, if they have, why they haven’t come out against them, too. The