Describe the biophysical, ecological, economic and sociocultural factors that explain the nature, spatial patterns and future directions of a global economic activity you have studied
The factors that explain the nature, special patters and future directions of viticulture include the biophysical, ecological, economic and socio-cultural factors.
The ideal temperature for growing grapes depends on the type of grape. For growing white grapes, ideally the temperature should be 19°C and for red grapes, 21°C. Reaching this ideal temperature is important because it is how the vine produces the sugar needed for plant growth, which influences the colour and flavour of ...view middle of the document...
Frost and hail are also reasons for extreme damage to vines.
Soil characteristics highly affect the character and quality of wine by influencing the water supply and temperature among the roots of the vines. Depth of soil will assist in the proper development of a root system, a deep, moist soil structure lead to a higher production of grape vines, while a shallower soils structure means a less grapes but of higher quality. The topography of the vineyard is important in determining the character of the grapes and wine. The topography of the land is an important factor contributing to the character of the grapes. Some vineyards are located on steeply sloping land, these are planted on contour banks to prevent erosion and reduce the amount of water taken in from rainfall. The slopes aspect affects the vines growth rate, which determines the quality of fruit produced.
Ecological concerns that are associated with viticulture include an increase in pest resistance to chemical intervention, soil compaction and erosion, poor water infiltration, low levels of organic matter in the soils, excessive water use and excessive use of certain types of fertilisers, specifically nitrogen based. Practices to reduce these concerns include a ground cover crop being introduced, to prevent soil erosion, reduce compaction and increase organic matter in the soil, a study of the growth cycle to fertilisers are only used when necessary, the removal of fallen leaves, the management of water used for irrigation and the use of biodegradable fungicides and biological controls. Organic viticulture is a system of grape growing that doesn’t use artificial fertilisers of pest control; the aim is to reduce manmade substances and increase soil microbial activity. Viticulturists try to transform the vineyard from a monoculture ecosystem to poly-culture. It can be difficult and expensive to be organic and there is little appreciation for the practice.
In the wine industry there has been a shift in consumer demand, now better quality wines at cheaper prices are sought after. Innovation has helped with the consumer demand; an example of this innovation is in the tops of the bottles. Screw tops have become a more popular method of closing a bottle. Screw tops are easier to open and much cheaper, only 15c compared to the 80c cork requires. The future wine industry will likely be shaped in the most part by the demands made on winemakers by large retailers.
The purchasing power of these large retailers means they are able to demand greater product consistency, in flavour and overall quality of wines. An example of this retail power is in wine sold by Coles. Coles buys all the wine produced by a small-scale winery, with the promise of Coles controlling labelling. The result of this agreement is good for the wine glut, as it sells quickly; it is also good for customers as wine prices become cheaper. The wine industry suffers in terms of wine...